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ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:10Page 1ITERBROCHUREUniting science today global energy tomorrow ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:10Page 2Interested in European research ? RDT info is our quarterly magazine keeping you in touch with main developments ( results, programmes, events, etc. ). It is available in English, French and German. A free sample copy or free subscription can be obtained from : European Commission Directorate-General for Research Information and Communication Unit B-1049 Brussels Fax ( 32-2 ) 29-58220 http://ec.europa.eu/research/rtdinfo/index_en.htmlEUROPEAN COMMISSION Directorate-General for Research Directorate J – Energy (EURATOM) Helpdesk : rtd-energy@ec.europa.eu Internet : http ://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/index_en.htm ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:10Page 3EUROPEAN COMMISSIONITER Uniting science today global energy tomorrow2007Directorate-General for Research Fusion Energy Research ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:10Page 4Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union Freephone number (*):00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 (*) Certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to 00 800 numbers or these calls may be billed.LEGAL NOTICE Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information. 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Printed in Belgium PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE - FREE PAPER ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:10Page 5CONTENTSForeword5The need for sustainable energy6What is fusion?8The advantages9How fusion power works10Europe and fusion11JET – the Joint European Torus12ITER – the objectives13ITER – the machine14ITER – the technology16ITER – working together19ITER – international resources20ITER – the EU “domestic agency”21ITER – industrial contribution22After ITER – the road to power22Further information24 ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:10Page 6 ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:10Page 7FOREWORDWith the agreement to build the international ITER experimental fusion reactor in Europe, the EU is to host one of the largest scientific undertakings ever conceived by humanity. The ITER site at Cadarache, in southern France, will become the focus of world research on fusion energy. This project's outcome could have a profound impact on how future generations live, by showing that energy from fusion is a practical possibility. Fusion research offers the prospect of a future energy source of unlimited scale that is safe, environmentally responsible and economically viable. It will benefit from an almost limitless supply of raw materials for fuel, widely distributed around the globe. Fusion already powers our world as it is the energy source that gives us sunlight our Sun is a massive fusion power station. Replicating on Earth the processes at work in the Sun and other stars has been a dream and a subject of research for several decades. ITER will be a major step towards making that dream a reality. If current trends continue, Europe will have to import an even greater proportion of its energy needs in the coming decades and thus compete with rapidly developing countries for dwindling fossil fuel resources. One way to ensure the security of our future energy supply is to develop new energy sources that can be produced in the European Union. Security of supply will be enhanced by having a portfolio of technologies, both conventional and new, and by improving the efficiency of our energy use. We need fusion to be ready to play an important role in this energy mix by contributing a large and cost-effective base-load supply. The results of research within the European fusion programme, including the Joint European Torus (JET), and from other programmes world-wide mean that we are now able to make the next big step towards realising the potential of fusion power. ITER is that next step. The ITER Agreement brings together more than half the world’s population to co-operate in the development on this major technology that will be of potential benefit to all. The challenges of the ITER project require the highest levels of technological and scientific expertise, which is being harnessed by pooling resources globally. But ITER is not only a large international research project: it also demonstrates how the EU can muster support for worldwide cooperation on major global issues. As an example of international scientific collaboration at an unprecedented level, it will also show how important scientific challenges, which require investments beyond the resources of most individual nations, can be tackled by collective global action. By hosting ITER, the EU exercises a special responsibility at the forefront of fusion research. The European Joint Undertaking for ITER has a major role in procuring the components that Europe is committed providing to ITER. Hosting such a cutting edge research facility will bring considerable benefits to EU industry. We have seen before that such challenging projects attract the best and brightest young scientists and engineers, and have led to the development of highly innovative ideas that stimulate industrial growth. This brochure presents the essentials of fusion science. It explores the world of European research that has brought us to ITER, within a successful international collaboration, and it explains the 'what, why and how' of the device itself. ITER will be a tremendous scientific adventure exploring and pushing back the frontiers of our knowledge, promoting international collaboration with the goal of safe, clean and abundant energy for the world - it truly represents one of humanity's best aspirations and endeavours.5 Janez Potoc¬nik ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:10Page 8I T E R – t h e n e e d fo r s u s ta i n a b l e e n e rg yTHE NEED FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY Society today depends on energy : for transport,For a society critically dependent on energy, maintainingfor industry and commerce, for health and wealth,a reliable and secure supply is essential. This meansand for our homes and leisure activities. Abundantthat Europe must also develop new indigenous energyand relatively cheap energy sources fuelled thesources.improvement in the quality of life enjoyed by Europe’s citizens during the 20th century.Environmental issues Our use of fossil fuels also produces pollutants, includingOver the next 50 years, the global demand for energynitrous oxides and carbon dioxide. In particular,may double as developing countries, such as Chinathe increasing levels of carbon dioxide in theand India, need increasing amounts of power for theiratmosphere due to burning fossil fuels aregrowing economies and as their citizens improve theira significant contributor to global warming.standards of living. In Europe, too, it is likely that energy demand will continue to rise.Continued and increasing use of fossil fuels, with the consequent increases in carbon dioxide and otherSupply issues stEntering the 21 century, the vast majority of thegreenhouse gases emissions, could have a profound effect on local climates.energy that Europe and the whole world depend upon still comes from fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas.Energy consumption results in 78% of EU greenhouseLooking forward, some existing energy sources willgas emissions. Europe has made commitments underbecome scarcer as known reserves are used up. This,the Kyoto Protocol to cut greenhouse gas emissionsin turn, will make energy more expensive. The globalas part of the global effort to avert climate change.competition for fossil energy supplies will be dramaticallyReducing dependence on fossil fuels and diversifyingincreased by the rapid growth of emerging economies.our energy supply are at the heart of policies to achieve this aim.Today, the European Union imports more than 50% of its energy, mostly in the form of oil and gas, from outsideNuclear fission energy is a sustainable energy sourcethe Union. The European energy bill amounts towhich does not produce any greenhouse gas emissionsa negative trade balance of € 240 billion every year.and currently supplies a significant percentage ofMany of the regions of the world that supply ourEurope’s electrical power. However, there are politicalenergy are geographically remote and some may beand environmental issues associated with fissionpolitically unstable. With current trends, it is predictedenergy, relating to the disposal of radioactive waste,that by 2030 the EU will depend on imported energysafety, and nuclear material proliferation.for 70% of its total needs.The international challenge In the 25 EU Member States, energy equivalent to 1 725 million tonnes of oil is consumed every year atclimate change together represent a real threat toa cost of € 500 billion — or more than € 1 000 per personfuture European prosperity. Securing future sustainableper year. By 2015, European energy demand couldenergy supply is therefore a major challenge forgrow to 1 900 million tonnes.6Current reliance on energy imports, high prices andEurope and the world. ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:10Page 9secure energy sources that future generations need ?enable a full exploration of the science relevant to fusion power, as well as testing key technologyIn addition to improving the efficiency of energy use,components for future power plants. It will be built inresearchers around the world are developing a rangeEurope, at Cadarache in southern France. Theof environmentally acceptable, safe and sustainableEuropean Joint Undertaking for ITER, situated inenergy technologies. A balanced mix of energies,Barcelona, manages the European contribution to theincluding renewable technologies such as windinternational ITER organisation.power, hydroelectric and solar, will be necessary to This brochure describes the challenges for ITER ;new energy sources that can deliver continuous,its aims, objectives and the international collaborationlarge-scale power for the long term without harminginvolved. It describes how fusion works, thethe environment.technology that controls it on Earth, and looks to the future to see where the technology goes from here.Fusion is such an energy source. Fusion brings power producing processes like those of the Sun to work on Earth. Fusion has a low environmental impact, no long-term nuclear waste, is inherently safe, and uses a fuel derived from materials that have vast reserves and can be found almost anywhere on Earth. However, making fusion work is technically very challenging. Such is the challenge and opportunity that the major world powers have decided to work together to take the next step towards making fusion power a reality. This next step is a fusion experiment called ITER.The next step to fusion powersatisfy future needs. But we must develop otherThe next step to fusion powerITER will prove the feasibility of fusion power and willI terWhere will we find the clean, safe, affordable andThe next step to fusion power The next step to fusion powerI T E R – t h e n e e d fo r s u s ta i n a b l e e n e rg y7 ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:11Page 10I T E R – w h at i s fu s i o n ?WHAT IS FUSION ?Fusion is the process that powers the Sun – it isWhen these two nuclei fuse together they produce afusion energy that makes life on Earth possible.new helium nucleus ( also known as an alpha particle )Unlike nuclear fission, which involves splitting veryand a high-energy neutron. The energy of the neutronheavy atoms to release energy, fusion releases energycan be captured and used to heat steam to generateas a result of the joining together of nuclei of twoelectricity just like in a conventional fossil-fuel powerlight atoms such as hydrogen to form a helium atomicstation.nucleus. Fusion energy has the potential to provide Inside the Sun, fusion reactions take place at verya sustainable solution to European and global energyhigh temperatures (about 15 million °C) and enormousneeds. Scientists are about to embark on the nextgravitational pressures. At the high temperaturesstep towards realising this potential, in anexperienced in the Sun any gas becomes a plasma.international collaboration on an experimental facilityPlasma is the fourth state of matter ( solid, liquid andcalled ITER. It will be the world’s biggest energygas being the other three ) ; it can be described as anresearch project.‘electrically-charged gas ’ in which the negatively charged electrons in atoms are completely separated from the positively charged atomic nuclei ( or ions ). Although plasma is rarely found on Earth, it is estimated that more than 99% of the Universe exists as plasma. The Sun produces around 300 million billion billion watts (3 x 1026 watts) of power by consuming 600 million tonnes of fuel every second. On Earth, scientists are aiming to reproduce fusion on a smaller scale ! A typical terrestrial power station produces about 1 000 megawatts, which would consume less than 0.01 grams of hydrogen per second. However, to achieve such a power output we have to find a way to confine the plasma and heat it to temperatures ten times higher than those in the Sun. This is a significant scientific and technical challenge. Terrestrial fusion will use the two heavier types ( or isotopes ) of hydrogen : deuterium – with a nucleus of one proton and a neutron ( an atomic particle with similar mass to the proton but no electrical charge ) ; and tritium ( one proton and two neutrons ).8 ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:19Page 11I T E R – t h e a dva n tag e sappropriate safety features will be incorporated intohas a number of highly attractive advantages comparedany plant design to avoid its release. No transport ofto other existing and future energy sources. For example,radioactive fuels would be needed for the day-to-dayfusion power offers an energy technology that canrunning of a fusion power plant, and even the ‘ worst-provide a continuous baseload power supply which iscase’ incidents would not require the evacuation ofsustainable, large scale and environmentally responsible.neighbouring populations. Because of its experimental character, ITER is not planned to be self-Almost inexhaustible fuelsufficient in tritium, but will use tritium produced inThe raw fuels from which deuterium and tritium arefission reactors.which is an abundant metal. Deuterium can be foundLow environmental impacteverywhere on Earth. There are around 0.033 gramsThe fusion process will not create greenhouse gases,of deuterium in every litre of water. We all carryother environmentally harmful pollutants or long-lastinglithium around: it is a component of batteries in mobileradioactive waste. Its fuel consumption will be extremelyphones and laptops. It is also plentiful and readilylow. A 1 000-megawatt electric fusion power plantextractable. If used to fuel a fusion power station,would consume around 100 kg of deuterium and threethe lithium in one laptop battery, complemented withtonnes of natural lithium in a year whilst generatinghalf a bath of water, would produce the same amount7 billion kilowatt-hour. To generate the same amount ofof electricity as burning 40 tonnes of coal.electricity, a coal-fired power plant would need around 1.5 million tonnes of coal.Natural reserves of tritium do not exist on Earth, but it can be made easily from lithium. In fact, tritium can beThe neutrons produced during the fusion reaction willmade using the high-energy neutron released frominteract with materials close to the reactor. In futurethe fusion reaction and offers the possibility offusion power plants, careful choice of materialsmaking tritium in situ in a fusion reactor. The neutronaround the hot plasma will ensure that no long-termis absorbed by the lithium to produce tritium.legacy of radioactive waste is produced by fusion power. However, in the case of ITER, the structuralInherent safetymaterial will be conventional steels as used in nuclearA fusion reactor is like a gas burner with all the fueltechnology and a limited amount of radioactive wasteinjected being ‘burnt’ in the fusion reaction. The densitywill be generated.of fuel in the reaction chamber will be very low at around 1 gram of deuterium/tritium fuel in a volume of 1 000 cubic metres. Any malfunction will cool theThe next step to fusion powerextracted and generated are water and lithium,The next step to fusion powerThe fusion power concept is difficult to realise but itThe next step to fusion power The next step to fusion powerTHE ADVANTAGESis impossible. The fusion fuels, deuterium and lithium, and the helium produced by the reactions, are not radioactive. Tritium is radioactive but decays quite quickly ( a half-life of 12.6 years ) producing a low-energy electron ( beta decay ). However, the tritium will be produced and used within the fusion reactor andI terplasma and stop the reactions – a runaway situation9 ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:18Page 12I T E R – h ow fu s i o n p ow e r wo r k sSeveral toroidal configurations have been studied. The most advanced of these is called the ‘tokamak’ — ITER will be the world’s largest tokamak. The first tokamak was conceived in Moscow in the 1960s and has been the main line for European research in fusion since the 1970s.HOW FUSION POWER WORKSTo produce a self-sustaining fusion reaction, the tritium and deuterium plasma must be heated to over 100 million °C – this requires powerful heating devices and minimal thermal loss. To sustain such a temperature the hot plasma must be kept away from the walls of the reactor. However, because the plasma is an electrically-chargedThree conditionsgas it can be held or contained by magnetic fields.To achieve net fusion power output in a deuterium-This allows the plasma to be held, controlled andtritium reactor, three conditions must be fulfilled :even heated by a complex cage of magnets, whilsta very high temperature greater than 100 million °C ;enabling the neutrons to escape as they have no electrica plasma particle density of at least 1022 particles percharge.cubic metre; and an energy confinement time for the reactor of the order of 1 second. This latter quantity is‘ Toroidal magnetic confinement fusion’ is the advanceda measure of the time that, if all sources of heatingtechnology that is the main approach for Europeanwere removed from the plasma, the energy containedfusion research and is at the heart of the ITER experiment.in it would dissipate.The reactions take place in a vessel that isolates the plasma from its surroundings it has a torus orTo actively control the plasma we need to understand‘doughnut-shape’ – essentially a continuous tube.fully its properties, how it conducts heat, how particles are lost from the plasma, its stability, and how unwantedThe confining magnetic fields ( toroidal and poloidalparticles ( impurities ) can be prevented from remainingfields ) are generated by electromagnets locatedin the plasma.around the reactor chamber and by an electrical current flowing in the plasma itself. This current is partlyOne of the major challenges in fusion research hasinduced by a solenoid at the centre of the torus whichbeen to maintain plasma temperature. Impurities coolacts as the primary winding of a transformer, the plasmathe plasma and ways must be found to extract them.being the secondary winding. The resulting magneticPlasma is heated by the electrical current induced byfield keeps the plasma particles and their energythe transformer arrangement, but additional heatingaway from the reactor wall.is needed to reach the high temperatures required. This includes the injection of beams of highly energetic fusion fuel particles ( deuterium and or tritium ) which, on collision with plasma particles, give up their energy to them, and radio-frequency heating where high-power radio waves are absorbed by the plasma particles.Inner Poloidal field coils (Primary transformer circuit) Poloidal magnetic field Outer Poloidal fiel coils (for plasma positioning and shaping)10Resulting Helical Magnetic field Plasma electric current (secondary transformer circuit)Toroidal field coilsToroidal magnetic field ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:20Page 13I T E R – e u ro p e a n d fu s i o nCurrently, the most successful and the largest fusionlast 20 years. The first practical experiments on fusionexperiment in the world is JET (the Joint European Torus).were conducted in Cambridge, UK during the 1930s,The basic design of ITER is derived from that of the JETbut real interest in the subject grew across Europeandevice. The European Fusion Development Agreementcountries during the 1950s.(EFDA) provides the framework for research, mutual sharing of facilities and the European contribution toAt the same time, interest was also being nurtured ininternational projects such as ITER.the US with the formation of the Princeton Plasma In addition, the European fusion programme sharesLaboratory. In the former Soviet Union, significantexpertise and technical facilities across Europe,work was undertaken during the Cold War but noincluding : the Tore Supra tokamak in France – the firstinformation was exchanged under normal scientificlarge tokamak to use superconducting magnets ; therules before 1956. In 1958, an ‘Atoms for Peace’ASDEX device in Germany – with ITER-shaped plasmas;conference was held in Geneva, under the impetus ofthe MAST spherical tokamak in the UK ; the highUS President Eisenhower.magnetic field FTU device and other magnetic confinement configurations including the reversedAlmost ten years later, results from a Soviet tokamakfield pinch device RFX in Italy and the stellarators TJ-IIgave fusion research a major boost. It achievedin Spain, and W7-X under construction in Germany.temperatures ten times higher than any other magneticThese and many other smaller experimental fusionconfinement experiment at the time. The Soviet successdevices are all contributing valuable data to thewas confirmed by visiting European scientists a yeardevelopment of the science and technology for ITER.later and led to the construction of many similar experiments around the world.Precursor of the ERA Fusion research in the EU is coordinated by the European Commission. Funding comes from the Community’s EURATOM Research Framework Programme and national funds from the Member States and Associated States (Switzerland since 1979 ). Coordination and long-term continuity is ensured by ongoing partnership contracts between EURATOM (European Atomic Energy Community) andThe next step to fusion powerPhysics Lab and work at the Los Alamos NationalThe next step to fusion powerEurope has been a leader in fusion research for theThe next step to fusion power The next step to fusion powerEUROPE AND FUSIONThe long-term objective of fusion R&D in the EU is “ the joint creation of prototype reactors for power stations to meet the needs of society : operational safety, environmental compatibility, economic viability ”.I terall the national bodies.11 ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:20Page 14I T E R – j e t – t h e j o i n t e u ro p e a n to r u sJET – THE JOINT EUROPEAN TORUSThe Joint European Torus (JET ) is currently the world’sSince 2000, the JET experimental programme haslargest fusion facility and is located at Culham nearbeen managed under EFDA with the UK Atomic EnergyOxford in the UK. JET is the only fusion device capableAuthority (UKAEA) contracted to maintain and operateof running on the deuterium and tritium fuel mix thatthe facility. The programme itself is carried out bywill power ITER.teams of visiting scientists from all the associated EU laboratories.The JET Joint Undertaking was launched in 1978 and the facility came into operation in 1983. It is a largeRecent upgrades to JET include new radio-frequencytokamak device approximately 15 metres in diameterplasma-heating equipment that will enable high-and 12 metres high and consisting of 32 ‘D’-shapedperformance operation getting closer to the plasmamagnets generating a toroidal magnetic field in a plasmaconditions expected in ITER. The main focus of currentcontainment vessel almost six metres in diameter.research at JET is to develop the scientific basis forThe toroidal field combines with a poloidal magneticITER – a task for which JET is uniquely placed as it isfield generated by the current flowing through the plasmacloser to ITER in size, shape and plasma parametersto provide the confining magnetic field. In addition, otherthan any other tokamak.magnetic coils are used to ‘fine-tune’ the positioning and shape of the plasma in the reactor.JET is also able to test much of the advanced systems technology, such as heating and control systems, newJET boasts an extensive array of plasma measurementmaterials for plasma-facing components, and remote-systems (diagnostic systems able to measure a widehandling devices that will be required by ITER inrange of plasma properties). These include magnetic-conditions close to power production.based measurements of the plasma shape, position and current; measurement of plasma density andResults from JET – together with other European andtemperature; a full array of spectroscopic measurementsworldwide fusion experiments such as the Japanese(from microwave, through visible to X-ray) and neutrontokamak JT-60 and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactorspectrometry; video imaging of the plasma, and many( TFTR ) in the US – have given scientists and engineersother techniques.the confidence to design the next step in the story of fusion power : ITER.Record power The JET facility has evolved and been upgraded over the years and the work undertaken with it has consistently led global fusion research. In 1991, JET was the first tokamak in the world to achieve a significant amount of controlled fusion power : 1.7 megawatts for about 2 seconds. And in 1997, running on deuteriumtritium fuel, JET established the current world record for fusion power of 16 MW for a limited duration, and 5 megawatts for 5 seconds. This record will not be beaten until ITER is built.12 ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:22Page 15I T E R – t h e o b j e c t i ve sThe ITER project will, for the first time, enable scientistsprovides the link between scientific studies on plasmato study the physics of a burning plasma – a plasmaphysics and future commercial fusion-based powerthat is heated by hot alpha particles generated by theplants. It is being built, financed and run by a trulyfusion reactions rather than by external heating. It willinternational collaborative scientific partnership.also demonstrate and refine the key technologies for developing fusion as a safe and environmentally benignIt will be a formidable scientific and technical challengeenergy source.– a global challenge that has needed a global The ITER experiment will generate ten times more€10 billion over its lifetime of 35 years.power than is required to produce and heat the initial hydrogen plasma – this is called the power multiplicationEssentially, ITER will comprise a tokamak withfactor ( Q ). In future power reactors, a Q factor ofsuperconducting electromagnets and other systems30-40 will be typical. The heating, control, diagnosticwhich make it capable of generating 500 megawattsand remote maintenance systems that will be neededof fusion power continuously for at least 400 seconds.in a real power station will be tested, and ITER willThe plasma volume will be ten times that of JET andalso investigate systems to refuel the plasma andwill be close to the size of future commercial reactors.extract impurities.ITER needs to be this big in order to achieve the target fusion power : more volume means more fusionITER will integrate the technologies essential for areactions taking place, and better thermal insulationfusion reactor, such as superconducting magnets andof the hot plasma ( corresponding to a large energyremote maintenance, and test other components suchconfinement time ).as the divertor mechanism and high-performance vacuum pumps to maintain low pressure in the plasma containment vessel. Although it will normally operate with externally supplied tritium, ITER will also test tritium breeding module concepts for demonstration power plant reactors.ITER design parameters Total fusion power (megawatt)500 MWPower multiplication factor ( Q )10 24 mTokamak height15 mPlasma volume850 m3On-axis toroidal magnetic field (tesla) Operational life5.3 T 20 years+I terTokamak diameterThe next step to fusion powerresponse. The project is expected to cost aroundThe next step to fusion powerITER will be an international scientific experiment thatThe next step to fusion power The next step to fusion powerTHE OBJECTIVES13 ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:22Page 16I T E R – t h e m ac h i n eTHE MACHINECentral solenoid (1) The primary circuit of a transformer – the plasma is the secondary circuit – that generates a poloidal magnetic field and electrical current in the plasma and heats it.Toroidal field coil (2) Eighteen large superconducting electromagnets generate the toroidal field.Poloidal field coil (3) Six smaller superconducting magnets supplement the central solenoid in forming and controlling the poloidal field.Diagnostics (4) A wide range of diagnostics devices, measuring all the parameters of the plasma and of the tokamak, will provide real-time data to enable control of the plasma burn and to analyse plasma behaviour.The overall ITER design comprises the tokamak itself,It will use low-temperature ( -269 °C, which is close toand associated systems for heating, fuelling, exhaustabsolute zero) superconducting electromagnets for bothof waste heat and gas, control, diagnostic measurements,its 18 toroidal (2) and six poloidal (3) coils and theetc. ITER, like JET, will have a vertical ‘D’-shaped plasma14central solenoid (1). Together, these coils canand a lower divertor system within the containmentgenerate a massive 5.3 tesla magnetic field – aboutvessel. The divertor (9) is a critical component and100 000 times greater than the maximum of thethe main area where plasma will contact the materialEarth’s magnetic field. Control of the plasma iswall. Testing this component and studying theachieved using the poloidal field coils together withprocesses involved in its behaviour is a veryvacuum pumping, fuelling and heating systems linkedimportant part of the ITER experiments.to feedback from the diagnostic (4) sensors. ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:22Page 17later experiments will test tritium breeder concepts as well.Vacuum vessel (6) Built in nine sectors which are welded together, to provide a hermetically sealed plasma containment.The superconductors of the electromagnets need to be cooled to -269 °C so the whole tokamak is in a huge cryogenic chamber.External heating systems (8) Up to 110 megawatts of external heating ( neutral beam and radio-frequency heating ) can be supplied to extend burn times and control plasma.Divertor (9) This is the main area where plasma will contact the vacuum vessel wall. The divertor controls the exhaust of waste gas and impurities from the reactor and is able to withstand very high surface heat loads.The whole ITER machine is enclosed in a -203°CThe heating systems, diagnostics and other equipmentcryostat (7) which helps insulate the superconductingare located on three levels around the surface of theelectromagnetic coils.vacuum vessel (6) and can be accessed during remote maintenance. The inner surfaces of theExternal heating systems (8) provide input heatingvacuum vessel are covered with blanket modules (5).power of about 50 megawatts using neutral beamThese modules will initially provide shielding from theinjection and radio-frequency electromagnetic waveshigh-energy neutrons produced by the fusion( electron and ion cyclotron frequencies ). Thesereactions and some will also be used to test a varietysystems are modular and an upgrade of this heatingof the most promising tritium breeding conceptspower is foreseen at some stage in the operationduring later experiments.phase to 100 megawatts.The next step to fusion powerCryostat (7)The next step to fusion powerInitially used to provide shielding from neutrons –I terBlanket module (5)The next step to fusion power The next step to fusion powerI T E R – t h e m ac h i n e15 ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:24Page 18I T E R – t h e t e c h n o lo g yTHE TECHNOLOGYMany new technologies, from superconductingOnce energised, the magnets can work continuouslyelectromagnets to novel materials, have been, or arewith very high efficiency, ideal for a steady-statebeing, developed for ITER and future fusion powerfusion reactor. As these magnets run at liquid heliumplants. Each technology area presents significanttemperature it is necessary to operate them inchallenges resulting from scientific and/or technicalvacuum to prevent heat in the atmosphere from boilingissues. All must be overcome to produce an efficientoff the helium – hence the cryostat surrounding theand sustainable energy system.central reactor.Superconducting magnet technologyThe manufacture and test of large-scale superconductingVery strong magnetic fields are required to confineelectromagnets is one of the major engineeringthe plasma in the ITER vacuum vessel. If conventionalchallenges for fusion, as they are the most expensiveresistive electromagnets are used, a lot of energy iscomponents of such a reactor. The successfulwasted in the form of heat. To limit the energy neededconstruction of the ITER electromagnets will thereforeto produce the large magnetic field, superconductingbe an important step forward for fusion.magnets have been developed. The ITER magnet system consists of 18 toroidal field coils, six poloidal fieldManufacturing reactor componentscoils together with a central solenoid and a number ofThe ITER plasma containment vessel will be more thancorrection or shaping coils.twice as large and 16 times as heavy as any previously manufactured fusion vessel. This raises issues ofThe toroidal field coils and central solenoid are massive,fabrication technology such as dimensional accuracyweighing 290 tonnes and 840 tonnes respectively,and welding distortion. The future construction ofand are made from a superconducting alloy materialadvanced fusion devices requires the development ofcontaining niobium and tin ( Nb Sn ). To achievea whole range of sophisticated processes andsuperconductivity, the coils must be cooled to liquidmanufacturing techniques.3helium temperature ( 4 K or -269 °C ). At this low temperature the resistance of the superconductingThese include advanced welding processes, such asmaterial falls to zero, thereby greatly reducing theautomated robotic welding and inspection techniques,energy required for the magnet.that can improve quality and reduce manufacturing time and cost. Although these techniques are beingNb3Sn is a brittle material and construction ofdeveloped within the fusion programme because ofmagnets weighing a few hundred tonnes is not easy,its specific needs, they have very wide-rangingbut the material was chosen because it can supportapplications. Improvements are also being made invery high magnetic fields. Each toroidal field coil startsthe manufacture of superconductors ( thewith some 1 100 wires about 0.7mm thick twistedsuperconducting material and its surroundingtogether inside a 40 mm - diameter metal tube to formstructures), which will increase their operatingconductors 820 m long. When in use, supercriticalmargins and reliability.helium flows within this tube and down a central gap to cool the Nb3Sn.Remote handling The internal structure of a fusion reactor will becomeThe poloidal field coils will be made from a material containing niobium and titanium ( NbTi ) which is moreand the presence of tritium. Remote-handling systemscommonly used than Nb3Sn. These coils are located in16radioactive during operation due to neutron radiation are therefore vital to be able to replace components,a region where the strength of the magnetic field issuch as the divertor and, eventually, breeder blanketlow enough for this material to be used. However, themodules, inside the machine.position also means that replacing poloidal field coils will be very difficult, so each coil will be designed with redundant turns so that any faults can be isolated to ensure that operation of ITER continues unhindered. ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:24Page 19I T E R – t h e t e c h n o lo g ytechnology with a combination of computer-controlledused to heat the outer surface of the plasma asand operator-controlled systems. In ITER, very robusta control mechanism for the build up of certainand reliable remote-handling equipment must beinstabilities that lead to the cooling of the plasma.designed. This equipment must be capable ofThis radiation has the advantage that it can bemanipulating components weighing up to 50 tonnes.transmitted through air which simplifies the designTo start the design process, virtual prototyping uses aand means that the source can be far from thecomputer to model all the movements and mechanicalplasma, thereby making maintenance simpler.behaviour of the robot in great detail so that the engineers can be certain that the equipment will perform first• Neutral Beam Injection – in this system, charged fusion fuel particles are accelerated to a very highbeen successfully demonstrated on full-scale mock-upsspeed ( kinetic energy of 1 mega electron Volt) andof ITER components – in particular, the basic feasibilityneutralised so that high-energy neutral particlesfor remote maintenance of the ITER divertor.can pass through the magnetic field and enter the fusion plasma. As a result, plasma is heatedCryogenics and vacuum systemsby the transfer of kinetic energy.In a fusion power plant, cryogenic systems are used to remove the impurities from the plasma, cool theDiagnosticssuperconducting coils to allow them to operate, separateIn a fusion reactor, many instruments measuringthe waste gases into their different individual componentsa variety of parameters are needed to control thefor disposal or recycling for fuel, provide the coolingplasma performance, including temperature, densityfor the radio-frequency heating sources, and controland the type of impurities present. Diagnostics mustthe gas pressure of neutral beam systems.be developed to monitor every aspect of the machine. Plasma diagnostics fall into three categories : thoseLarge-scale vacuum systems are required to ensure annecessary for machine protection or basic control ;ultra-high vacuum in the large reactor vessels that willthose needed for advanced performance control ;be used by commercial fusion power stations, and toand those desirable for physics studies. There will bemaintain the vacuum surrounding the superconductingabout 45 different diagnostic systems deployedmagnets in the cryostat.around the ITER tokamak and they will use a variety of measurements based, for example, on magnetic,Plasma heatingoptical, microwave techniques.Plasma heating systems are essential for obtaining a The most reliable way of measuring temperature is towould not continue if the plasma was not heated byshine a very powerful laser into the plasma. The photonsan external source, and for both ITER and futurein the laser beam scatter off the energetic plasmapower plant operation it is likely that the heatingelectrons and this scattered light can be measured.systems will be an essential tool to ensure stabilityThe Doppler shift in the wavelength of the scatteredand control of the plasma. Initially, three main typesphotons gives a direct measurement of the speed andof heating systems will be deployed for ITER :hence the temperature of the electrons, whilst the intensity of the reflected light is related to the density• Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating – in this system,of the plasma.ions in the plasma are heated by electromagnetic waves with a resonance frequency of 30 toOne method of measuring the level of impurities is to50 megahertz. The main issues concern how totake measurements of the ultraviolet ( UV ) radiationcouple the intense radiation to the plasma and whatfrom the plasma. Different sized particles will radiateeffect this has on the performance of the plasma.differing UV wavelengths because they have different excitation energies. Therefore, knowing the UV spectrum• Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating – here the electrons in the plasma are heated by electromagnetic waves with a resonance frequencyof the plasma reveals the nature and amount of impurities present.I terhigh-temperature plasma. For ITER, the fusion reactionThe next step to fusion powertime. These remote-handling techniques have alreadyThe next step to fusion powerof 100 to 200 megahertz. This system is also beingThe next step to fusion power The next step to fusion powerFor JET, engineers have mastered remote-handling17 ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:24Page 20I T E R – t h e t e c h n o lo g yThe divertor and wall materials In order to remove heat, fusion products ( helium ) andA number of different concepts are being explored forother impurities from the plasma, the plasma will bebreeder blankets. This technology will have to work atallowed to touch its surrounding structure in ahigh temperatures in a commercial reactor to providecontrolled manner. This is achieved by shaping theefficient heat exchange to raise steam for electricitymagnetic field lines in such a way as to enter thegeneration, whilst continuing to breed at least onedivertor. The divertor consists of two targets designedtritium atom for every fusion reaction in the plasma.to withstand heat loads of up to 20 megawatts perResearch in this area is concentrating on the use ofsquare metre. Contact with wall materials elsewhereliquid-cooled lithium-lead and helium-cooled solidneeds to be minimised as this will erode the vacuumceramic breeder pebbles. Initially, ITER will usevessel surface and reduce the lifetime of reactorblankets for the shielding function and willcomponents.demonstrate the most advanced tritium breeding concepts as part of its experimental programme at aThe material currently used as the target of the divertor is carbon reinforced with carbon fibre. In addition to this critical part of the divertor design, it is also important to design components that can withstand the high electromechanical loads experienced in the reactor chamber, allow high-vacuum pumping to remove the helium from the plasma, and tolerate long exposure to neutron radiation.Breeding and shielding blanket technology A reliable and efficient ‘ breeder blanket ’ technology is vital for heat transfer and fuel generation in future fusion power plants. The energetic neutrons released from fusion reactions do not interact with the plasma. The role of the blanket, which will surround a commercial reactor, is to slow the neutrons, recovering their energy as heat for industrial processing or electrical power production as well as using them to transform lithium into tritium. The tritium can then be extracted, processed and added to deuterium for refuelling the reactor. By capturing the neutrons, the blanket also shields other components, such as the superconducting coils, and protects them from damage.18later stage. 14/08/0714:24Page 21I T E R – wo r k i n g to g et h e rWORKING TOGETHERproject was first proposed at summit level in 1985 andprogramme that has established its practicalthe technical work started in 1988 as a collaborationfeasibility and involved construction of full-scalebetween the European Union, Japan, the former Sovietprototypes of key ITER components, including theUnion and the United States, under the auspices of themagnets. This has provided the confidence that ITERInternational Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).can be built by industry. The successful testing of these components has continued in parallel with theToday, the international consortium to implement ITERnegotiations and has helped maintain the scientificcomprises the People’s Republic of China, the EU, India,and technical momentum of the project whileJapan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation,increasing confidence in the project’s viability.and the USA.Design and negotiation ITER is a multinational collaboration between countries involved in fusion research worldwide. It operates by consensus among its participants. In a way, it extends the European R&D model that has enjoyed success in the Euratom programme with JET. Its design has passed through a number of phases. The first stage (1988-1990) developed the original conceptual design and was followed by a phase of engineering design activities (mid-1992 to mid-1998). However, when it was felt that it would be difficult to secure political support for the financial scale of the project, a further phase was required to design a smaller device that would be significantly less expensive. The USA did not participate in this phase. This redesign was completed in July 2001 (ITER Final Design Report), including the cost, construction schedule, safety and licensing requirements. In late 2001, the EU, Canada, Japan and the Russian Federation embarked on official negotiationsNovember 2006 saw the successful end of years of intense negotiations among the ITER parties on the Joint Implementation of the project. The official signing ceremony took place at the Elysée Palace in Paris, where ministers from the seven parties convened and saw the birth of the ITER international organisation.The next step to fusion powerThe ITER design was underpinned by a large researchThe next step to fusion power The next step to fusion powerThe idea of undertaking ITER has an internationalThe next step to fusion powerconcerning the joint construction, operation and exploitation of ITER. Subsequently, the USA decided to rejoin the project. China, South Korea and, more recently, India have also joined as full participants, whilst Canada dropped out.I terITER-705589_BAT19 ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:28Page 22I T E R - international resourcesINTERNATIONAL RESOURCES As much and perhaps more than high-technology andEuropean fusion researchers have been able to exploitcutting-edge science, ITER concerns human endeavourJET efficiently because they have been working for a longand our thirst for knowledge. ITER is about collaborationtime in a coordinated and integrated R&D programme.and co-operation across cultures and continents toThe experience gained and the management toolsmeet a global challenge.developed for the operation of JET demonstrate how the worldwide co-operation and collaboration neededAlthough based in Europe, the ITER project is undertakenfor the operation of ITER can be organised.by the international ITER Organisation established following the signature of the ITER Joint ImplementationThe Cadarache siteAgreement. The parties to the ITER Agreement share the project costs. With respect to its construction, mostThe ITER reactor will be built at the European site atcomponents are contributed by members asCadarache ( near Aix-en-Provence ) in southern France.contributions in kind. The European Joint Undertaking isThis site is already a large-scale energy researchthe organisation -“domestic agency”- established in Aprilcentre for the French Atomic Energy Commission2007 that will manage the European contribution to ITER.( CEA ), housing 18 experimental nuclear installationsTogether, the EU and France will contribute about half ofincluding the Tore Supra superconducting tokamak.the total construction costs for ITER, with the other parties sharing the rest on an equal basis.The Cadarache site covers a total surface area of about 40 hectares with another 30 hectares availableHosting ITER enables Europe to maintain its positiontemporarily for use during building. Key requirementsat the forefront of fusion research. The existence offor the location include thermal cooling capacity ofsuch a high-technology, cutting-edge research facilityaround 450 megawatts and an electrical power supplywill have considerable benefits for European andof up to 120 megawatts.other Parties’ industry. It represents the commitment of Europe to the development of fusion and willThe region around Cadarache offers most of the socialensure that the best and brightest scientific mindsand technical infrastructures required for ITER andare attracted to ITER.fulfils all the project requirements (technical installation, seismic appraisal, water supply, electricNew way of workingpower supply; safety and statutory licensing; socio-The European experience with JET has demonstratedeconomic aspects ; cost estimates ).an excellent model for how to work together in ITER. Running experiments on a fusion device like ITER willMajor components for ITER will be transported to thenot be the same as on other large scientific facilitiesnearest sea port ( Marseilles , the second largest citysuch as telescopes or particle accelerators.in France) which is located approximately 70The experiments will not be run ‘on’ a machine whichkilometres from Cadarache. The area has anoperates routinely for scientists – rather, the machineassociated social, cultural, industrial and academicitself is the experiment. This demands a very highinfrastructure, an agreable, climate and pleasantdegree of coordination in planning, executing andnatural environment.analysing experiments by researchers from all the participating laboratories, as well as the machine operators.20Construction is ready to start at Cadarache and, if all goes to plan, the first ITER plasma will light up in 2016. ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:28Page 23I T E R – t h e e u “d om e s t i c ag e n c y ”THE EU “DOMESTIC AGENCY”Japan signed in February 2007, known as thetheir contributions to the ITER organisation. The“Broader Approach”, Fusion for Energy will also“European Joint Undertaking for ITER & thesupport projects to accelerate the development ofDevelopment of Fusion Energy” (or Fusion for Energycommercial fusion power. These projects include thefor short) is the Domestic Agency created by the European Union for this purpose. It was established in April 2007 for 35 years.design of a fusion materials test facility (IFMIF), the superconducting upgrade of a Japanese tokamak (JT-60U) and the launch of an International Fusion Energy Research Centre. Their funding relies on thebudget of 4 billion euros over ten years. It will workvoluntary contributions from some Member stateswith European industry and research organisations toand Switzerland, mostly “in kind”. In the longer term,develop and manufacture the components thatit should also implement a programme of activities toEurope has agreed to provide to ITER – around 50% ofprepare for the first demonstration fusion reactor.the total. From an organisational point of view, a GoverningFusion for Energy aims to pool resources at EuropeanBoard will ensure overall supervision of Fusion forlevel. To this end, it will receive contributions from itsEnergy’ s activities. This Board will be composed ofmembers – EURATOM, the EU Member States andrepresentatives from each of its members.Associated countries (presently Switzerland). Its organisation and internal rules will be adapted toHuman resources will be one of the most importantits challenging tasks, particularly the procurement ofassets for the success of Fusion for Energy. Inhigh tech components from industry.particular, the organisation is recruiting top notch engineers and technicians to interact with industries, fusion laboratories and other organisations in order to ensure the effective delivery of Europe’s international commitments.The next step to fusion powerBased in Barcelona, Fusion for Energy has a totalThe next step to fusion power“Domestic Agencies” through which they will provideThe next step to fusion power The next step to fusion powerIn the framework of the international agreement withI terThe seven parties involved in ITER are to establish21 ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:28Page 24I T E R - i n d u s t r i a l co n t r i b u t i o nINDUSTRIAL CONTRIBUTIONcomponents at the cutting-edge of existing technologies. The JET project is a classic example of industrialClearly, achieving the goal of fusion power involvesinvolvement. Up to the end of the JET Jointexciting and stimulating technological challenges.Undertaking in 1999, the total value of high-technol-Existing technologies have been pushed to their limitsogy contracts for its construction and operation wasand new technologies have been ( and will be )€ 540 million. Hundreds of companies were involveddeveloped. Industry has been a fundamental partnerin projects covering the whole range of systems,with academic research in achieving success in thisincluding the plasma vessel, pumping and fuellingarea and has benefited in many ways.systems, cryogenic equipment, magnetic field systems, the mechanical structure, power systems,Technology forwardcontrol and data acquisition, remote handling,One feature of the European fusion researchdiagnostics and additional heating systems.programme is the knowledge transfer between the programme, industry and the wider scientificThis partnership with industry will increase as ITERcommunity. The ITER project adds an exciting newtakes shape, offering further opportunities and challenges.challenge, promising a wealth of additional opportunities for the industries involved. Large companies, many of whom may already haveAFTER ITER – THE ROAD TO POWERexperience on the international stage, will be involved in ITER. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) willThe successful construction and operation of ITER willalso be involved either directly, or indirectly asbe a significant step towards sustainable energysubcontractors, giving them the opportunity toproduction from fusion. The information, technologydemonstrate their expertise and widen their experience.and experience that it will provide will be crucial to theMany companies around the world have already madedevelopment of a demonstration power plant ( DEMO ).significant contributions to the development of key ITER prototype components, such as the magnetic system.DEMO will generate significant amounts of electricity over extended periods and would be tritium self-sufficient.This technology transfer process leads to many spin-off technologies, the formation of new companies and, inMany of the components proven in ITER will be usedsome cases, to whole new industrial sectors.in DEMO and, in parallel, advanced fusion materialsExamples include high-heat flux components,research will contribute to the materials technologysuperconducting magnets for imaging systems ( MRI )solutions needed for DEMO and the first commercial– currently revolutionising medicine – high-powerfusion power plants.microwaves for industry, plasma physics software and diagnostics adapted for use in semiconductor and thin-film fabrication, new high-technology cloth-weavingto the effects of high neutron fluxes, high surface heatmachines, and carbon-composites for use in brakesloads and thermal cycling, will be required to ensureand vehicle clutches. Moreover, the very demandingany structural waste from a fusion power plant willtechnical specifications imposed by fusion requirementsnot be a long-term burden to future generations.have induced the industrial partners to improve fabricationThese materials are being developed within the long-processes and quality assurance. This is an importantterm fusion R&D programme. To assess the potentialaspect of technology transfer even in cases of‘ life expectancy ’ and accelerate testing of thesecollaboration not necessarily leading to new products.22Advanced low-activation materials, which are resistantmaterials it will be necessary to construct a test facility that can provide a similar neutron environment to thatThe fusion experimental devices and auxiliary facilitiesof a future fusion reactor. The realisation for such ain the Euratom fusion research programme have beenfacility called the International Fusion Materialsconstructed almost exclusively by European industry.Irradiation Facility (IFMIF ) is being pursued through theThis has involved a high standard of engineering andco-operative agreement between Japan and the EU,frequently the development of subsystems andthe ‘Broader Approach’. ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:31Page 25I T E R - a f t e r i t e r - t h e roa d to fu s i o n p ow e rITER is planned to operate at a nominal fusion thermalwhich, for coal, are typically comparable to the capitalpower of 500 megawatts. Assuming that DEMO will becosts and should be lowest for fusion.approximately of a similar physical size to ITER, its fusion thermal power level must be greater byThe story continues …about a factor of three in order to deliver ( at currentThe last 50 years of fusion research and developmentlevels of turbine efficiencies ) electrical power to thehave continually thrown up new challenges to test thegrid in the range of 500 megawatts electron.enthusiasm and skills of two generations of scientistsThis increase demands a general level of heat fluxand engineers. The story so far has been one of continuousthrough the reactor walls about three times higherprogress as technology develops and our scientificthan in ITER, and a consequent improvement inknowledge grows.plasma performance. Scientists believe that this The development of fusion power has many uniquelinear dimensions, and a 30% increase in the plasmaaspects as a human activity. It has a very specific goaldensity above those nominally expected in ITER.which will take a significant time to reach – beyond the normal economic perspective for commercialA major challenge will be the performance and durabilitydevelopment. It demands continuity in investigationof breeder blanket technology and systems for refuelling/and transmission of knowledge between generationsreplacement of modules during continuous operation.of physicists and engineers, requiring not only continuous levels of funding for the main researchIf DEMO is successful in terms of systems andactivities, but also funding to attract and trainperformance, the reactor itself can be used as anewcomers to the field in supporting experiments.commercial prototype creating the so-called ‘ fastHowever, energy is such a basic human need that intrack ’ to fusion. This could bring forward thethese circumstances it is government’s responsibilityavailability of fusion as a truly sustainable energyto make this long-term option available to society.option by about 20 years. Fusion is the classic example of open research This final step on the road to fusion power would beconducted on a global basis and able to bring scientiststhe construction of a first-of-a-series commercial-sizedand engineers together from many different disciplines,fusion power reactor. In order to double the electricalbackgrounds and political allegiances to share theirpower of DEMO and achieve a 1 000 megawatt powerknowledge freely.station, the linear machine dimensions of DEMO would need to be increased by a modest amount.ITER and its associated activities is the next step in this story.Fusion power reactor economics In 1972, Lev Artsimovitch, the leader of the Soviet tokamaksubject of research in parallel to scientific activitiesprogramme was asked : “ When will fusion be ready ? ”and uses results from it.His answer was : “ Fusion will be there when society needs it. ”Assuming plant capital cost scales with the tokamak volume, DEMO capital costs are expected to be of theLooking at current energy trends and the proposedorder of € 7 billion or € 14 per watt (euro per watttrajectory for fusion research and development itelectrical output) based on the cost estimates for ITERwould appear that his prediction will be correct.at current values. The cost of full-size prototype fusionITER is the next step in fulfilling this promise.power plant would typically be € 8/We and, with the subsequent economies of series production of fusion plants, capital costs could fall to about € 4 per watt. This should be compared to today’s fission and coal plants at about € 3 per watt and € 1.5 per watt respectively. However, the capital costs of today’s coal plants do not include the expense of mitigating environmental damage (the so-called externalities), nor do any of the above costsI terThe economic viability for fusion power has been aThe next step to fusion powerperformance could be achieved with a 15% rise in ITERThe next step to fusion powerinclude the fuel, operating and decommissioning costsThe next step to fusion power The next step to fusion powerDEMO and beyond23 ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:31Page 26I T E R - fu rt h e r i n fo r m at i o nFURTHER INFORMATION Further reading Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply, European Commission, Green Paper, COM ( 2000 ) 769 http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy_transport/en/lpi_lv_en1.html Fusion Research – An Energy Option for Europe’s Future, European Commission, ISBN 92-894-7714-8 Fusion : The Energy of the Universe ( Complementary Science Series ) Peter Stott, Garry McCracken, Academic Press ( London ), 2004 ISBN 01-248-1851-X La fusion nucléaire: une source d’énergie pour l’avenir? Jean Adam Pour la Science, Diffusion Belin, Paris 1993 Nuclear Fusion : half a century of magnetic confinement research C M Braams and P E Stott, 2002 Bristol : Institute of Physics Publishing ISBN 0750307056 La fusion nucléaire Joseph Weisse, February 2003 ISBN 2130533094 Heißer als das Sonnenfeuer. Plasmaphysik und Kernfusion Eckhardt Rebhan, München 1992 ISBN-13 978-3492031097 Fusionsforschung. Eine Einführung Uwe Schumacher, Darmstadt 1993 ISBN 3534109058 Focus on: JET - The European Centre of Fusion Research Jan Mlynár, EFD-R(07)01, 2007 Iter: le chemin des étoiles? Robert Arnoux, Jean Jacquinot, Edisud 2007 ISBN 2-7449-0615-8Websites ITER: http://www.iter.org ITER at Cadarache: http://www.itercad.org European Fusion Development Agreement ( EFDA ): http://www.efda.org JET facility: http://www.jet.efda.org European Commission Fusion Energy Research: http://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/fusion European Fusion Network Information: http://www.fusion-eur.org International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility: http://www.frascati.enea.it/ifmif24FIRE fusion site at Princeton Plasma Physics laboratory: http://fire.pppl.gov A glossary of fusion terms: http://www.fusion.org.uk/info/glossary/glossmain.htmContact Rosa Antidormi Research Directorate-General E-mail: rosa.antidormi@ec.europa.eu ITER-705589_BAT14/08/0714:31Page 27SALES AND SUBSCRIPTIONS Publications for sale produced by the Office for Official Publications of the
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