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Πέμπτη, 28 Μαίου 2020

Στην 91η θέση μεταξύ 148 χωρών κατατάσσεται η Ελλάδα, σύμφωνα με την πρόσφατη Εκθεση Διεθνούς Ανταγωνιστικότητας (Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014) του World Economic Forum. Στην μκροσκελή αυτή έκθεση του WEF αναφέρεται ότι η χώρα μας παραμένει τελευταία μεταξύ των μελών της Ευρωζώνης στην κατάταξη, αλλά ανέβηκε πέντε θέσεις στην διεθνή κατάταξη.

Η διεθνής ανταγωνιστικότητα της Ελλάδος παραµένει χαµηλή, σύµφωνα µε την πρόσφατη έκθεση του ∆ιεθνούς Οικονοµικού Forum Στην 91η θέση µεταξύ 148 χωρών κατατάσσεται η Ελλάδα, σύµφωνα µε την πρόσφατη Εκθεση ∆ιεθνούς Ανταγωνιστικότητας (Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014) του World Economic Forum. Στην µκροσκελή αυτή έκθεση του WEF αναφέρεται ότι η χώρα µας παραµένει τελευταία µεταξύ των µελών της Ευρωζώνης στην κατάταξη, αλλά ανέβηκε πέντε θέσεις στην διεθνή κατάταξη.Η Ελλάδα κινείται υψηλότερα στη διεθνή κατάταξη στους δείκτες υγείας και πρωτοβάθµιας εκπαίδευσης (35η θέση), υποδοµών (38η θέση), τεχνολογικής ετοιµότητας (39η θέση), ανώτερης εκπαίδευσης και επαγγελµατικής εκπαίδευσης (41η θέση) και µεγέθους αγοράς (47η θέση). Κάτω από τη µέση της κατάταξης ήταν στους δείκτες επιχειρηµατικής εξειδίκευσης (83η θέση) και καινοτοµίας (87η θέση), θεσµών (103η) και αποτελεσµατικότητας της αγοράς προϊόντων (108η), ενώ χαµηλή ήταν η κατάταξή της όσον αφορά το µακροοικονοµικό περιβάλλον (147η θέση), την ανάπτυξη των χρηµατοπιστωτικών αγορών (138η) και την αποτελεσµατικότητα της αγοράς εργασίας (127η).1/5 Ως πιο προβληµατικοί παράγοντες για το επιχειρείν αναφέρθηκαν η πρόσβαση σε χρηµατοδότηση (22% των απαντήσεων που έδωσαν οι επιχειρήσεις), η γραφειοκρατία του δηµοσίου (21,2%), οι φορολογικές ρυθµίσεις (14,5%), η έλλειψη σταθερότητας στις πολιτικές (12%), οι φορολογικοί συντελεστές (9,8%), η διαφθορά (6,9%) και οι περιοριστικές ρυθµίσεις στην αγορά εργασίας (5,2%). Στην κορυφή της λίστας του WEF παραµένει, για πέµπτη συνεχή χρονιά, η Ελβετία, ενώ οι ΗΠΑ διατηρούν τα πρωτεία όσον αφορά στην παρουσίαση καινοτόµων προϊόντων και υπηρεσιών στην αγορά. Ειδικότερα, οι ανταγωνιστικότερες οικονοµίες, σύµφωνα µε την έκθεση, είναι η Ελβετία, η Σιγκαπούρη, η Φινλανδία, η Γερµανία, οι ΗΠΑ, η Σουηδία, το Χονγκ Κονγκ, η Ολλανδία, η Ιαπωνία και η Βρετανία. Οι ΗΠΑ ανέβηκαν δύο θέσεις στην κατάταξη χάρη στη βελτίωση των συνθηκών στον χρηµατοοικονοµικό τοµέα καθώς και στη µεγαλύτερη εµπιστοσύνη στους δηµόσιους φορείς της. Το WEF τονίζει, ωστόσο, πως παραµένουν «σοβαρές ανησυχίες» σχετικά µε την µακροοικονοµική σταθερότητα της χώρας. Όσον αφορά στην Ευρώπη, το WEF σηµειώνει ότι οι προσπάθειες συγκράτησης των δηµόσιων χρεών και αποφυγής της διάλυσης της Ευρωζώνης έχουν αποσπάσει την προσοχή από την αντιµετώπιση των θεµάτων της ανταγωνιστικότητας. «Οι οικονοµίες της νότιας Ευρώπης όπως η Ισπανία, η Ιταλία, η Πορτογαλία και ειδικά η Ελλάδα θα πρέπει να αντιµετωπίσουν τις αδυναµίες στη λειτουργία και αποτελεσµατικότητα των αγορών τους, να δώσουν ώθηση στην καινοτοµία και να βελτιώσουν την πρόσβαση στη χρηµατοδότηση», επισηµαίνεται στην έκθεση.Περιφερειακοι ∆είκτες Ανταγωνιστικότητας των χωρών της ΕΕ (Regional Competitiveness Index)2/5 Ο ∆ιεθνής ∆είκτης Ανταγωνιστικότητας (GCI) προκείπτει από την σύνθεση διαφόρων επιµέρους δεικτών, όπως προκύπτει από το ακόλουθο διάγραµµα (από την έκθεση)Οι επιµέρους δείκτες (βασικών απαιτήσεων, ενίσχυσης επιδόσεων και εξειδίκευσης καινοτοµίας) επεισέρχονται στον υπολογισµό του GCI µε συντελεστές βάρους που εξαρτώνται από την βαθµίδα του κατά κεφαλήν ετησίου εισοδήµατος (GDP per capita) της εξεταζόµενης χώρας, σύµφωνα µε τον ακόλουθο πίνακα:Οι 148 εξεταζόµενες χώρες κατατάσσονται στις ως άνω κατηγορίες µα βάση το κατά κεφαλήν εισόδηµα ως εξής: (η Ελλάδα περιλαµβάνεται στην υψηλή κατηγορία, ΑΕΠ > $17.000)3/5 Στον τοµέα της αγοράς εργασίας, η Ελλάδα, όπως και η Ιταλία και η Ισπανία κατατάσσονται σε ιδιαίτερα χαµηλές θέσεις, όπως προκύπτει από τον ακόλουθο πίνακα.4/5 Στην συνέχεια παρατίθεται η ενότητ της έκθεσης που αφορά την Ελλάδα, καθώς και ενδιαφέροντες πίνακες για την κατάταξη των εξεταζοµένων χωρών ως προς το κατά κεφαλήν εισόδηµα και το ακαθέριστο εθνικό προϊόν (µέγεθος της εθνικής οικονοµίας σε δολλάρια). Η πλήρης έκθεση (περισσότερες από 500 σελίδες) διατίθεται ελεύθερα για download στην διεύθυνση: http://www.weforum.org/reports/global-competitiveness-report-2013-2014Επιµέλεια: Π. Αναγνωστόπουλος, www.e-archimedes.gr5/5 Insight ReportThe Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014 Klaus Schwab, World Economic Forum 1.1: The Global Competitiveness Index 2013–2014Table 3: The Global Competitiveness Index 2013–2014 rankings and 2012–2013 comparisons GCI 2013–2014Country/EconomySwitzerland Singapore Finland Germany United States Sweden Hong Kong SAR Netherlands Japan United Kingdom Norway Taiwan, China Qatar Canada Denmark Austria Belgium New Zealand United Arab Emirates Saudi Arabia Australia Luxembourg France Malaysia Korea, Rep. Brunei Darussalam Israel Ireland China Puerto Rico Iceland Estonia Oman Chile Spain Kuwait Thailand Indonesia Azerbaijan Panama Malta Poland Bahrain Turkey Mauritius Czech Republic Barbados Lithuania Italy Kazakhstan Portugal Latvia South Africa Costa Rica Mexico Brazil Bulgaria Cyprus Philippines India Peru Slovenia Hungary Russian Federation Sri Lanka Rwanda Montenegro Jordan Colombia Vietnam Ecuador Georgia Macedonia, FYR BotswanaGCI 2013–2014Rank (out of 148)Score (1–7)Rank among 2012–2013 economies*1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 745.67 5.61 5.54 5.51 5.48 5.48 5.47 5.42 5.40 5.37 5.33 5.29 5.24 5.20 5.18 5.15 5.13 5.11 5.11 5.10 5.09 5.09 5.05 5.03 5.01 4.95 4.94 4.92 4.84 4.67 4.66 4.65 4.64 4.61 4.57 4.56 4.54 4.53 4.51 4.50 4.50 4.46 4.45 4.45 4.45 4.43 4.42 4.41 4.41 4.41 4.40 4.40 4.37 4.35 4.34 4.33 4.31 4.30 4.29 4.28 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.22 4.21 4.20 4.20 4.19 4.18 4.18 4.15 4.14 4.131 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74GCI 2012–20131 2 3 6 7 4 9 5 10 8 15 13 11 14 12 16 17 23 24 18 20 22 21 25 19 28 26 27 29 31 30 34 32 33 36 37 38 50 46 40 47 41 35 43 54 39 44 45 42 51 49 55 52 57 53 48 62 58 65 59 61 56 60 67 68 63 72 64 69 75 86 77 80 79Country/EconomyCroatia Romania Morocco Slovak Republic Armenia Seychelles Lao PDR Iran, Islamic Rep. Tunisia Ukraine Uruguay Guatemala Bosnia and Herzegovina Cambodia Moldova Namibia Greece Trinidad and Tobago Zambia Jamaica Albania Kenya El Salvador Bolivia Nicaragua Algeria Serbia Guyana Lebanon Argentina Dominican Republic Suriname Mongolia Libya Bhutan Bangladesh Honduras Gabon Senegal Ghana Cameroon Gambia, The Nepal Egypt Paraguay Nigeria Kyrgyz Republic Cape Verde Lesotho Swaziland Tanzania Côte d’Ivoire Ethiopia Liberia Uganda Benin Zimbabwe Madagascar Pakistan Venezuela Mali Malawi Mozambique Timor-Leste Myanmar Burkina Faso Mauritania Angola Haiti Sierra Leone Yemen Burundi Guinea ChadRank (out of 148)Score (1–7)Rank among 2012–2013 economies*75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 1484.13 4.13 4.11 4.10 4.10 4.10 4.08 4.07 4.06 4.05 4.05 4.04 4.02 4.01 3.94 3.93 3.93 3.91 3.86 3.86 3.85 3.85 3.84 3.84 3.84 3.79 3.77 3.77 3.77 3.76 3.76 3.75 3.75 3.73 3.73 3.71 3.70 3.70 3.70 3.69 3.68 3.67 3.66 3.63 3.61 3.57 3.57 3.53 3.52 3.52 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.45 3.45 3.45 3.44 3.42 3.41 3.35 3.33 3.32 3.30 3.25 3.23 3.21 3.19 3.15 3.11 3.01 2.98 2.92 2.91 2.8575 76 77 78 79 80 n/a 81 n/a 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 n/a 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 n/a 136 137 n/a 138 139 140 141 142 143GCI 2012–201381 78 70 71 82 76 n/a 66 n/a 73 74 83 88 85 87 92 96 84 102 97 89 106 101 104 108 110 95 109 91 94 105 114 93 113 n/a 118 90 99 117 103 112 98 125 107 116 115 127 122 137 135 120 131 121 111 123 119 132 130 124 126 128 129 138 136 n/a 133 134 n/a 142 143 140 144 141 139* This column shows the rank of each economy based on last year’s sample of 144 economies.The Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014 | 15 2.1: Country/Economy ProfilesGreece Key indicators, 2012GDP (PPP) per capita (int’l $), 1990–2012Population (millions) ........................................ 11.3 GDP (US$ billions) ........................................ 249.2 GDP per capita (US$) ................................. 22,055 GDP (PPP) as share (%) of world total ............ 0.33Greece50,000Advanced economies40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 199019921994199619982000200220042006200820122010Global Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 148)Stage of developmentScore (1–7)GCI 2013–2014 ...................................................... 91 ..... 3.9Transition 1–21GCI 2012–2013 (out of 144) ..................................... 96 ......3.9 GCI 2011–2012 (out of 142) ..................................... 90 ......3.9Factor driven2Transition 2–33Efficiency drivenBasic requirements (20.0%) .......................................88 ......4.3Innovation drivenInstitutionsInstitutions .............................................................. 103 ......3.5 Infrastructure ............................................................ 38 ......4.8 Macroeconomic environment ................................. 147 ......2.8 Health and primary education ................................... 35 ......6.17Innovation6Infrastructure5Business sophisticationMacroeconomic environment4 3Efficiency enhancers (50.0%) .....................................67 ......4.12Higher education and training ................................... 41 ......4.8 Goods market efficiency ........................................ 108 ......3.9 Labor market efficiency .......................................... 127 ......3.8 Financial market development ................................ 138 ......2.9 Technological readiness ............................................ 39 ......4.6 Market size ............................................................... 47 ......4.4Market sizeHealth and primary education1Higher education and trainingTechnological readiness Financial market developmentGoods market efficiencyInnovation and sophistication factors (30.0%) ...........81 ......3.5Labor market efficiencyBusiness sophistication ........................................... 83 ......3.8 Innovation ................................................................. 87 ......3.1GreeceInnovation-driven economiesThe most problematic factors for doing business Access to financing ...........................................................22.4 Inefficient government bureaucracy ...................................21.2 Tax regulations ..................................................................14.5 Policy instability .................................................................12.0 Tax rates..............................................................................9.8 Corruption ...........................................................................6.9 Restrictive labor regulations .................................................5.2 Inadequate supply of infrastructure ......................................2.8 Government instability/coups ..............................................2.2 Insufficient capacity to innovate ...........................................1.9 Poor public health ...............................................................0.4 Inadequately educated workforce ........................................0.3 Poor work ethic in national labor force ................................0.3 Foreign currency regulations ................................................0.1 Inflation ................................................................................0.1 Crime and theft ...................................................................0.0 051015 Percent of responsesNote:From the list of factors above, respondents were asked to select the five most problematic for doing business in their country and to rank them between 1 (most problematic) and 5. The bars in the figure show the responses weighted according to their rankings.198 | The Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014202530 2.1: Country/Economy ProfilesGreece The Global Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATORVALUE RANK/148INDICATOR1st pillar: Institutions 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21Property rights ....................................................... 3.9 ............87 Intellectual property protection ............................... 3.7 ............70 Diversion of public funds ........................................ 2.7 ..........104 Public trust in politicians ......................................... 1.9 ..........138 Irregular payments and bribes ................................ 3.6 ............91 Judicial independence............................................ 3.4 ............84 Favoritism in decisions of government officials ....... 2.6 ..........113 Wastefulness of government spending ................... 2.0 ..........140 Burden of government regulation ........................... 2.2 ..........144 Efficiency of legal framework in settling disputes .... 2.5 ..........138 Efficiency of legal framework in challenging regs. ... 2.6 ..........130 Transparency of government policymaking............. 3.6 ..........123 Business costs of terrorism .................................... 5.3 ............86 Business costs of crime and violence..................... 4.7 ............68 Organized crime ..................................................... 5.4 ............56 Reliability of police services .................................... 4.0 ............77 Ethical behavior of firms ......................................... 3.5 ..........113 Strength of auditing and reporting standards ......... 4.3 ............93 Efficacy of corporate boards .................................. 4.0 ..........122 Protection of minority shareholders’ interests ......... 4.2 ............67 Strength of investor protection, 0–10 (best)* .......... 4.7 ..........1002.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09Quality of overall infrastructure ............................... 4.5 ............60 Quality of roads ...................................................... 4.2 ............63 Quality of railroad infrastructure .............................. 2.7 ............64 Quality of port infrastructure ................................... 4.5 ............57 Quality of air transport infrastructure....................... 5.3 ............44 Available airline seat km/week, millions* ............. 542.0 ............38 Quality of electricity supply ..................................... 5.3 ............55 Mobile telephone subscriptions/100 pop.* ......... 116.9 ............57 Fixed telephone lines/100 pop.* ........................... 47.8 ............143.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05Government budget balance, % GDP* ..................-6.4 ..........130 Gross national savings, % GDP* .......................... 10.7 ..........124 Inflation, annual % change* .................................... 1.0 ..............1 General government debt, % GDP* ................... 158.5 ..........147 Country credit rating, 0–100 (best)* ...................... 21.7 ..........1294.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10Business impact of malaria ............................. N/Appl. ..............1 Malaria cases/100,000 pop.* ................................(NE) ..............1 Business impact of tuberculosis ............................. 6.5 ............26 Tuberculosis cases/100,000 pop.* ......................... 3.8 ..............7 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ................................. 6.1 ............32 HIV prevalence, % adult pop.* ............................. 0.20 ............45 Infant mortality, deaths/1,000 live births* ................ 3.7 ............24 Life expectancy, years*......................................... 80.7 ............21 Quality of primary education ................................... 3.8 ............78 Primary education enrollment, net %* .................. 99.0 ............205.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08Secondary education enrollment, gross %* ........ 109.5 ............13 Tertiary education enrollment, gross %*................ 89.4 ..............4 Quality of the educational system ........................... 3.1 ..........112 Quality of math and science education .................. 4.3 ............58 Quality of management schools ............................. 3.8 ............94 Internet access in schools ...................................... 3.9 ............86 Availability of research and training services ........... 3.8 ............94 Extent of staff training ............................................ 3.5 ..........1162nd pillar: InfrastructureVALUE RANK/1486th pillar: Goods market efficiency (cont’d.) 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16No. procedures to start a business* ........................ 11 ..........126 No. days to start a business* .................................. 11 ............54 Agricultural policy costs.......................................... 2.8 ..........144 Prevalence of trade barriers ................................... 4.9 ............18 Trade tariffs, % duty* .............................................. 0.8 ..............4 Prevalence of foreign ownership............................. 4.4 ............90 Business impact of rules on FDI ............................. 3.0 ..........141 Burden of customs procedures .............................. 3.9 ............81 Imports as a percentage of GDP* ........................ 30.4 ..........122 Degree of customer orientation .............................. 4.5 ............72 Buyer sophistication ............................................... 3.3 ............847.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10Cooperation in labor-employer relations ................. 3.7 ..........124 Flexibility of wage determination ............................. 3.9 ..........132 Hiring and firing practices ....................................... 3.5 ..........102 Redundancy costs, weeks of salary* .................... 15.9 ............78 Effect of taxation on incentives to work .................. 2.5 ..........137 Pay and productivity............................................... 3.2 ..........129 Reliance on professional management ................... 3.8 ..........104 Country capacity to retain talent............................. 3.1 ............86 Country capacity to attract talent ........................... 2.3 ..........127 Women in labor force, ratio to men* ..................... 0.73 ............928.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08Availability of financial services ............................... 3.8 ..........106 Affordability of financial services ............................. 3.6 ..........118 Financing through local equity market .................... 2.2 ..........135 Ease of access to loans ......................................... 1.6 ..........146 Venture capital availability ....................................... 1.7 ..........146 Soundness of banks .............................................. 2.3 ..........148 Regulation of securities exchanges ........................ 3.8 ............92 Legal rights index, 0–10 (best)* ................................. 4 ..........1019.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07Availability of latest technologies ............................ 5.0 ............67 Firm-level technology absorption ............................ 4.5 ............88 FDI and technology transfer ................................... 4.0 ..........111 Individuals using Internet, %* ............................... 56.0 ............53 Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions/100 pop.* . 23.5 ............28 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user* ................ 54.7 ............38 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop.*.......... 44.5 ............3410.01 10.02 10.03 10.04Domestic market size index, 1–7 (best)*................. 4.2 ............44 Foreign market size index, 1–7 (best)* .................... 4.8 ............58 GDP (PPP$ billions)* .......................................... 276.9 ............46 Exports as a percentage of GDP* ........................ 27.5 ..........10911.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09Local supplier quantity ........................................... 4.5 ............89 Local supplier quality.............................................. 4.5 ............63 State of cluster development.................................. 3.0 ..........128 Nature of competitive advantage ............................ 3.8 ............48 Value chain breadth................................................ 3.6 ............84 Control of international distribution ......................... 3.9 ............78 Production process sophistication.......................... 3.6 ............79 Extent of marketing ................................................ 4.1 ............70 Willingness to delegate authority ............................ 3.4 ..........10312.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07Capacity for innovation........................................... 3.0 ..........117 Quality of scientific research institutions ................. 3.6 ............72 Company spending on R&D................................... 2.6 ..........122 University-industry collaboration in R&D ................. 3.0 ..........119 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech products ...... 2.4 ..........141 Availability of scientists and engineers .................... 5.4 ..............5 PCT patents, applications/million pop.* .................. 8.8 ............377th pillar: Labor market efficiency8th pillar: Financial market development3rd pillar: Macroeconomic environment4th pillar: Health and primary education5th pillar: Higher education and training6th pillar: Goods market efficiency 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05Intensity of local competition .................................. 4.8 ............87 Extent of market dominance .................................. 3.8 ............73 Effectiveness of anti-monopoly policy ..................... 3.8 ............92 Effect of taxation on incentives to invest................. 2.4 ..........142 Total tax rate, % profits* ....................................... 44.6 ..........1019th pillar: Technological readiness10th pillar: Market size11th pillar: Business sophistication12th pillar: InnovationNotes: Values are on a 1-to-7 scale unless otherwise annotated with an asterisk (*). For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014 | 199 2.2: Data Tables0.01 Gross domestic product Gross domestic product in billions of current US dollars | 2012RANK1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74COUNTRY/ECONOMYVALUERANKUnited States ........................15,684.8 China ......................................8,227.0 Japan .....................................5,964.0 Germany .................................3,400.6 France ....................................2,608.7 United Kingdom ......................2,440.5 Brazil.......................................2,396.0 Russian Federation .................2,022.0 Italy .........................................2,014.1 India........................................1,824.8 Canada ...................................1,819.1 Australia ..................................1,541.8 Spain ......................................1,352.1 Mexico ....................................1,177.1 Korea, Rep. ............................1,155.9 Indonesia ...................................878.2 Turkey........................................794.5 Netherlands ...............................773.1 Saudi Arabia ..............................727.3 Switzerland ................................632.4 Iran, Islamic Rep. .......................548.9 Sweden .....................................526.2 Norway ......................................501.1 Poland .......................................487.7 Belgium .....................................484.7 Argentina ...................................475.0 Taiwan, China ............................474.0 Austria .......................................398.6 South Africa ...............................384.3 Venezuela ..................................382.4 Colombia ...................................366.0 Thailand .....................................365.6 United Arab Emirates .................358.9 Denmark ....................................313.6 Malaysia.....................................303.5 Singapore ..................................276.5 Nigeria .......................................268.7 Chile ..........................................268.2 Hong Kong SAR ........................263.0 Egypt .........................................256.7 Philippines .................................250.4 Finland .......................................250.1 Greece .......................................249.2 Israel ..........................................240.9 Pakistan .....................................231.9 Portugal .....................................212.7 Ireland........................................210.4 Algeria .......................................207.8 Peru ...........................................199.0 Kazakhstan ................................196.4 Czech Republic .........................196.1 Qatar .........................................183.4 Ukraine ......................................176.2 Kuwait .......................................173.4 New Zealand .............................169.7 Romania ....................................169.4 Vietnam .....................................138.1 Hungary .....................................126.9 Bangladesh................................122.7 Angola .......................................118.7 Puerto Rico................................101.0 Morocco ......................................97.5 Slovak Republic ...........................91.9 Libya ............................................81.9 Ecuador .......................................80.9 Oman ..........................................76.5 Azerbaijan ....................................68.8 Sri Lanka .....................................59.4 Dominican Republic .....................59.0 Croatia .........................................57.1 Luxembourg ................................56.7 Myanmar......................................53.1 Bulgaria .......................................51.0 Guatemala ...................................49.975 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148SOURCE:COUNTRY/ECONOMYInternational Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database (April 2013 edition); national sources404 | The Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014VALUEUruguay .......................................49.4 Slovenia .......................................45.6 Tunisia .........................................45.6 Costa Rica ...................................45.1 Lithuania ......................................42.2 Ethiopia........................................41.9 Lebanon ......................................41.3 Kenya ..........................................41.1 Ghana ..........................................38.9 Serbia ..........................................37.4 Panama .......................................36.3 Yemen .........................................35.6 Jordan .........................................31.2 Latvia ...........................................28.4 Tanzania ......................................28.2 Bolivia ..........................................27.4 Bahrain ........................................27.0 Paraguay .....................................26.0 Trinidad and Tobago....................25.3 Cameroon....................................25.0 Côte d’Ivoire ................................24.6 El Salvador...................................23.8 Cyprus .........................................23.0 Estonia.........................................21.9 Uganda ........................................21.0 Zambia ........................................20.5 Nepal ...........................................19.4 Honduras .....................................18.4 Gabon .........................................18.4 Botswana ....................................17.6 Bosnia and Herzegovina ..............17.3 Brunei Darussalam .......................16.6 Georgia ........................................15.9 Jamaica .......................................15.2 Mozambique ................................14.6 Cambodia ....................................14.2 Senegal .......................................13.9 Iceland .........................................13.7 Albania.........................................12.7 Namibia .......................................12.3 Mauritius ......................................11.5 Chad............................................10.8 Nicaragua ....................................10.5 Burkina Faso................................10.5 Mali ..............................................10.3 Mongolia ......................................10.3 Madagascar .................................10.1 Armenia .......................................10.1 Zimbabwe ......................................9.8 Macedonia, FYR ............................9.7 Lao PDR ........................................9.2 Malta .............................................8.7 Haiti ...............................................7.9 Benin .............................................7.4 Moldova .........................................7.3 Rwanda .........................................7.2 Kyrgyz Republic .............................6.5 Guinea ...........................................5.6 Suriname .......................................4.7 Barbados .......................................4.5 Montenegro ...................................4.3 Malawi ...........................................4.2 Mauritania ......................................4.2 Timor-Leste ...................................4.2 Sierra Leone ..................................3.8 Swaziland ......................................3.8 Guyana ..........................................2.8 Burundi ..........................................2.5 Lesotho .........................................2.4 Bhutan ...........................................2.2 Cape Verde ...................................1.9 Liberia ............................................1.7 Seychelles......................................1.0 Gambia, The ..................................0.9 2.2: Data Tables0.02 Population Total population in millions | 2012RANK1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74COUNTRY/ECONOMYVALUERANKChina ......................................1,344.1 India........................................1,241.5 United States .............................311.6 Indonesia ...................................242.3 Brazil..........................................196.7 Pakistan .....................................176.7 Nigeria .......................................162.5 Bangladesh................................150.5 Russian Federation ....................143.0 Japan ........................................127.8 Mexico .......................................114.8 Philippines ...................................94.9 Vietnam .......................................87.8 Ethiopia........................................84.7 Egypt ...........................................82.5 Germany ......................................81.8 Iran, Islamic Rep. .........................74.8 Turkey..........................................73.6 Thailand .......................................69.5 France .........................................65.4 United Kingdom ...........................62.7 Italy ..............................................60.7 South Africa .................................50.6 Korea, Rep. .................................49.8 Myanmar......................................48.3 Colombia .....................................46.9 Tanzania ......................................46.2 Spain ...........................................46.2 Ukraine ........................................45.7 Kenya ..........................................41.6 Argentina .....................................40.8 Poland .........................................38.5 Algeria .........................................36.0 Uganda ........................................34.5 Canada ........................................34.5 Morocco ......................................32.3 Nepal ...........................................30.5 Peru .............................................29.4 Venezuela ....................................29.3 Malaysia.......................................28.9 Saudi Arabia ................................28.1 Ghana ..........................................25.0 Yemen .........................................24.8 Mozambique ................................23.9 Taiwan, China ..............................23.2 Australia .......................................22.3 Romania ......................................21.4 Madagascar .................................21.3 Sri Lanka .....................................20.9 Côte d’Ivoire ................................20.2 Cameroon....................................20.0 Angola .........................................19.6 Chile ............................................17.3 Burkina Faso................................17.0 Netherlands .................................16.7 Kazakhstan ..................................16.6 Mali ..............................................15.8 Malawi .........................................15.4 Guatemala ...................................14.8 Ecuador .......................................14.7 Cambodia ....................................14.3 Zambia ........................................13.5 Senegal .......................................12.8 Zimbabwe ....................................12.8 Chad............................................11.5 Greece .........................................11.3 Belgium .......................................11.0 Rwanda .......................................10.9 Tunisia .........................................10.7 Portugal .......................................10.6 Czech Republic ...........................10.5 Guinea .........................................10.2 Haiti .............................................10.1 Bolivia ..........................................10.175 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148COUNTRY/ECONOMYVALUEDominican Republic .....................10.1 Hungary .......................................10.0 Sweden .........................................9.4 Azerbaijan ......................................9.2 Benin .............................................9.1 Burundi ..........................................8.6 Austria ...........................................8.4 Switzerland ....................................7.9 United Arab Emirates .....................7.9 Israel ..............................................7.8 Honduras .......................................7.8 Bulgaria .........................................7.3 Serbia ............................................7.3 Hong Kong SAR ............................7.1 Paraguay .......................................6.6 Libya ..............................................6.4 Lao PDR ........................................6.3 El Salvador.....................................6.2 Jordan ...........................................6.2 Sierra Leone ..................................6.0 Nicaragua ......................................5.9 Denmark ........................................5.6 Kyrgyz Republic .............................5.5 Slovak Republic .............................5.4 Finland ...........................................5.4 Singapore ......................................5.2 Norway ..........................................5.0 Costa Rica .....................................4.7 Ireland............................................4.6 Georgia ..........................................4.5 New Zealand .................................4.4 Croatia ...........................................4.4 Lebanon ........................................4.3 Liberia ............................................4.1 Bosnia and Herzegovina ................3.8 Puerto Rico ....................................3.7 Panama .........................................3.6 Moldova .........................................3.6 Mauritania ......................................3.5 Uruguay .........................................3.4 Albania...........................................3.2 Armenia .........................................3.1 Lithuania ........................................3.0 Oman ............................................2.8 Kuwait ...........................................2.8 Mongolia ........................................2.8 Jamaica .........................................2.7 Namibia .........................................2.3 Lesotho .........................................2.2 Macedonia, FYR ............................2.1 Latvia .............................................2.1 Slovenia .........................................2.1 Botswana ......................................2.0 Qatar .............................................1.9 Gambia, The ..................................1.8 Gabon ...........................................1.5 Trinidad and Tobago......................1.3 Estonia...........................................1.3 Bahrain ..........................................1.3 Mauritius ........................................1.3 Timor-Leste ...................................1.2 Cyprus ...........................................1.1 Swaziland ......................................1.1 Guyana ..........................................0.8 Bhutan ...........................................0.7 Montenegro ...................................0.6 Suriname .......................................0.5 Luxembourg ..................................0.5 Cape Verde ...................................0.5 Malta .............................................0.4 Brunei Darussalam .........................0.4 Iceland ...........................................0.3 Barbados .......................................0.3 Seychelles......................................0.1SOURCES: The World Bank, World Development Indicators (April 2013 edition); national sourcesThe Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014 | 405 2.2: Data Tables0.03 GDP per capita Gross domestic product per capita in current US dollars | 2012RANK1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74COUNTRY/ECONOMYVALUERANKLuxembourg ..........................107,206 Qatar .......................................99,731 Norway ....................................99,462 Switzerland ..............................79,033 Australia ...................................67,723 United Arab Emirates ...............64,840 Denmark ..................................56,202 Sweden ...................................55,158 Canada ....................................52,232 Singapore ................................51,162 United States ...........................49,922 Austria .....................................47,083 Japan ......................................46,736 Netherlands .............................46,142 Finland .....................................46,098 Ireland......................................45,888 Kuwait .....................................45,824 Belgium ...................................43,686 Iceland .....................................41,739 Brunei Darussalam ...................41,703 Germany ..................................41,513 France .....................................41,141 United Kingdom .......................38,589 New Zealand ...........................38,222 Hong Kong SAR ......................36,667 Italy ..........................................33,115 Israel ........................................31,296 Spain .......................................29,289 Puerto Rico..............................27,451 Cyprus .....................................26,389 Saudi Arabia ............................25,085 Oman ......................................24,765 Bahrain ....................................23,477 Korea, Rep. .............................23,113 Slovenia ...................................22,193 Greece .....................................22,055 Malta .......................................20,852 Taiwan, China ..........................20,328 Portugal ...................................20,179 Trinidad and Tobago................19,018 Czech Republic .......................18,579 Slovak Republic .......................16,899 Estonia.....................................16,320 Barbados .................................16,152 Chile ........................................15,410 Uruguay ...................................14,614 Russian Federation ..................14,247 Lithuania ..................................14,018 Latvia .......................................13,900 Croatia .....................................12,972 Venezuela ................................12,956 Libya ........................................12,778 Hungary ...................................12,736 Poland .....................................12,538 Brazil........................................12,079 Gabon .....................................11,929 Kazakhstan ..............................11,773 Argentina .................................11,576 Seychelles................................11,226 Turkey......................................10,609 Lebanon ..................................10,311 Malaysia...................................10,304 Mexico .....................................10,247 Panama .....................................9,919 Costa Rica .................................9,673 Botswana ..................................9,398 Mauritius ....................................8,850 Suriname ...................................8,686 Romania ....................................7,935 Colombia ...................................7,855 South Africa ...............................7,507 Azerbaijan ..................................7,450 Iran, Islamic Rep. .......................7,211 Bulgaria .....................................7,03375 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148COUNTRY/ECONOMYSOURCES: International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database (April 2013 edition); national sources406 | The Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014VALUEMontenegro ...............................6,882 Peru ...........................................6,530 China .........................................6,076 Angola .......................................5,873 Dominican Republic ...................5,763 Namibia .....................................5,705 Algeria .......................................5,694 Thailand .....................................5,678 Jamaica .....................................5,541 Ecuador .....................................5,311 Serbia ........................................4,943 Jordan .......................................4,879 Macedonia, FYR ........................4,683 Bosnia and Herzegovina ............4,461 Tunisia .......................................4,232 Albania.......................................3,913 Paraguay ...................................3,903 Ukraine ......................................3,877 El Salvador.................................3,823 Timor-Leste ...............................3,730 Mongolia ....................................3,627 Cape Verde ...............................3,604 Guyana ......................................3,596 Indonesia ...................................3,592 Georgia ......................................3,543 Swaziland ..................................3,475 Guatemala .................................3,302 Egypt .........................................3,112 Morocco ....................................2,999 Armenia .....................................2,991 Bhutan .......................................2,954 Sri Lanka ...................................2,873 Philippines .................................2,614 Bolivia ........................................2,532 Honduras ...................................2,242 Moldova .....................................2,037 Nicaragua ..................................1,757 Nigeria .......................................1,631 Ghana ........................................1,562 Vietnam .....................................1,528 India...........................................1,492 Zambia ......................................1,474 Lao PDR ....................................1,446 Yemen .......................................1,377 Pakistan .....................................1,296 Lesotho .....................................1,283 Cameroon..................................1,165 Kyrgyz Republic .........................1,158 Mauritania ..................................1,157 Senegal .....................................1,057 Côte d’Ivoire ..............................1,054 Chad..........................................1,006 Kenya ...........................................977 Cambodia .....................................934 Myanmar.......................................835 Bangladesh...................................818 Benin ............................................794 Haiti ..............................................759 Zimbabwe .....................................756 Rwanda ........................................693 Mozambique .................................650 Mali ...............................................631 Nepal ............................................626 Sierra Leone .................................613 Burkina Faso.................................603 Tanzania .......................................599 Uganda .........................................589 Guinea ..........................................519 Gambia, The .................................503 Ethiopia.........................................483 Madagascar ..................................451 Liberia ...........................................436 Burundi .........................................282 Malawi ..........................................253
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