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Σάββατο, 01 Οκτωβρίου 2022

Περιλαμβάνεται σύντομη επεξήγηση των γεωτεχνικών όρων στην Αγγλική και απόδοσή τους στα Ελληνικά, Γαλλικά και Γερμανικά (αρκετών)

glossary οf geotechnical terms acceptance test a load test to confirm that each anchor conforms with the acceptance criteria essai de réception Abnahmeprüfung δοκιμή αποδοχήςaction radius theoretical distance travelled by the grout from the injection point. ακτίνα ενεργείαςadditive (admixture) any grout ingredient {e.g. liquifiers, stabilisers) other than the basic components of a grout mix (water, aggregates, or cementitious material), which is used to modify the liquid and solid state properties of the grout πρόσθετοagitator tank a tank with rotation paddles used to prevent segregation of grout after preparation. δεξαμενή ανάδευσηςair lifting pumping technique in which air is pumped into the base of a suction pipe to cause reduced density of material in the pipe and induce upward flow to evacuate solids and fluids (flushing). αναρόφηση υλικών με αεροκυκλώναanchor an installation capable of transmitting an applied tensile load to a load bearing stratum tirant d'ancrage Anker αγκύριοanchor head the component of a ground anchor which transmits the tensile load from the tendon to bearing plate or structure tête d'ancrage Ankerkopf κεφαλή αγκυρίουanchorage anchoring system for the sheet pile wall, for example anchor plates or anchor walls including the connecting rods (tie rods), screw anchors, ground and rock anchors, driven ground anchors, anchoring piles and anchors with grouted or expanded bodies αγκύρωσηapparent tendon free length the length of tendon between the connection of the tendon to the stressing jack and a point along the tendon, deduced from load testing of an anchor longueur libre équivalente Rechnerische freie Stahllänge προεξέχον τμήμα τένοντοςσελ 1 / 32 area grouting see blanket grouting. τσιμεντενέσεις ποδιάςascending grouting see upstage grouting. ανιούσες τσιμεντενέσειςauger tool consisting of a stem, helical flights and a cutting edge or edges for intermittent excavation (when operated by a kelly bar) or continuous excavation (continuous flight auger). δράπανοauxiliary structures all structures necessary for the proper and safe execution of the sheet piling works βοηθητικές κατασκευέςbarrette discrete length of diaphragm wall, usually short, or a number of interconnecting lengths cast simultaneously (e.g. L-, T- or cruciform shapes), used to support vertical and/or lateral loads. barrette Schlitzwandefement πτερύγιο διαφραγματικού τοίχουbatch quantity of grout mixed at one time. ανάμιγμαbentonite a clay composed principally of minerals of the montmorilionite group, characterised by high water adsorption and a very large volume change upon saturation or drying. They are clays with a content of swellable smectites of at least 70 % and a water absorption capacity of more than 500 %..A distinction is made between natural, sodic, calcic, modified, and activated bentonites.A naturally-occurring or manufactured sodium or calcium montmorillonite clay. When wetted the minerals swell to form a suspension that is fluid when starred, but thixotropic action causes the fluid to gel when the suspension is at rest. μπεντονίτηςbentonite suspension stabilizing fluid that comprises bentonite and water. αιώρημα μπεντονίτηbentonite-cement grout a grout having bentonite, cement and water as its basic ingredients. ένεμα μπεντονίτη - τσιμέντουbinder a substance which causes cohesion in loosely assembled substances. συνδετικό υλικόBingham fluid a substance which possesses both viscosity and cohesion. ρευστό Binghamσελ 2 / 32 blanket (or area) grouting the creation of a grouted mass whose lateral dimensions greatly exceed its depth. κουρτίνα τσιμεντενέσεωνbleed the separation of water from grout paste ressuage Absetzma εξύδρωμαbleeding the autogenous flow of mixing water within, or its emergence from, newly placed grout. εξύδρωσηbleeding rate the rate at which water is released from grout by bleeding. ρυθμός εξύδρωσηςbonding (bond) strength strength developed between the grout and its host material. συνεκτικότηταbored pile pile formed with or without a pile casing by excavating or boring a hole in the ground and filling with plain or reinforced concrete. pieu foré πάσσαλοι δι΄αφαιρέσεωςborehole diameter the diameter of a borehole as defined by the drill bit or casing diameter, excluding any enlargements diamètre de forage Bohrlochdurchmesser διάμετρος διάτρησηςboring (drill) string tool assembly used for continuous excavation consisting of a head (e.g. drilling head, bit, auger, bucket) and an operating string (e.g. drilling pipes, Kelly bars, stabilizers, counter weights). διατρητικό στέλεχοςbracing a system of walings and struts to support the structure διάταξη στήριξηςbrooming separation of fibres at the toe or head of a timber pile ξέφτισμαbucket boring tool in the form of a cylindrical container, at the bottom of a Kelly bar, used for intermittent excavation and incorporating cutting blades or teeth and corresponding openings in its hinged base plate for the intake of material. κοπτικός κάδος σελ 3 / 32 bulk filling bulk filling is the placement of grout with a high particulate content to fill substantial voids injection de comblement Hohlraumverfüllung πλήρωση διακένων (με τσιμεντένεμα)casing steel tube used temporarily or permanently to support shaft walls during the construction of a pile. In permanent situation the casing can act as a protective or load bearing unit μανδύας (διασωλήνωση)cast in place (displacement) pile pile installed by driving a closed ended concrete shell or permanent or temporary casing, and filling the hole so formed with plain or reinforced concrete έγχυτος πάσσαλοςcast in situ concrete diaphragm wall wall made of plain concrete or reinforced concrete, which is constructed in a trench excavated in the ground. The concrete is placed through concreting pipes, beneath the supporting fluid in the case of liquid-supported trenches or in some cases, in dry conditions paroi moulée en béton Ortbetonschlitzwand έγχυτος διαφραγματικός τοίχοςcasting level final level to which concrete is cast in a pile excavation. It is above the cut-off level by a margin depending on the execution procedure. στάθμη πλήρωσης οπής πασσάλου με σκυρόδεμαcast-in-place bored pile a pile cast either within a bored hole in the ground or within a driven casing. έγχυτος πάσσαλοςcast-in-place screw pile screw pile formed by screwing into the ground a closed ended permanent or temporary casing, comprising at its base a displacement head in the form of a screw. The hole so formed is filled with plain or reinforced concrete. έγχυτος κοχλιωτός πάσσαλοςcathodic protection a means of protecting steel piles from corrosion by providing a consumable anode or by applying an external electrical potential καθοδική προστασίαcement grout a grout in which the primary bonding agent is cement. τσιμεντένεμαcentralizer device to locate reinforcement centrally in a bore hole. διάταξη κέντρωσης (κεντρωτής)σελ 4 / 32 characteristic internal anchor resistance the characteristic load capacity of the anchor tendon résistance interne caractéristique du tirant Charakteristischer Innerer Ankerwiderstand χαρακτηριστική εσωτερική αντοχή τένοντοςchemical grout any grouting material characterised by being a solution, i.e. having no particles (other than impurities) in suspensions. χημικό ένεμαchisel tool for breaking up obstructions in a pile excavation or for socketing a pile into hard soil or rock. κοπίδιcircuit grouting a grouting method where grout is supplied to a hole or group of holes, leaving excess grout travelling back through a return line into a holding tank. αντεπιστρέφουσα τσιμεντένεσηcirculation grouting a grouting method by which grout is circulated through a pipe extending to the bottom of the hole and back up the hole via the annular space outside the pipe. The excess grout is diverted back to the agitator tank. The method is used where holes tend to cave and sloughing material might otherwise clog openings to be grouted. τσιμεντένεση ανακυκλοφορίαςclaquage or claquage grouting see hydraulic fracturing in Definitions (French terminology). τσιμεντένεση διάρρηξηςclient's technical representative represents the client and is fully acquainted with all aspects of the works related to the use of the anchors, including specialist knowledge of ground anchor technology représentant technique du client Technischer Bauherrn Vertreter τεχνικός εκπρόσωπος πελάτηcoefficient of permeability (hydraulic conductivity) the rate of discharge of water under conditions of laminar flow through a unit cross-sectional area of a porous medium under a unit hydraulic gradient and standard temperature conditions, usually 20 ° Intrinsic permeability, k, is a prop erty of the material and measured in [m2]. C. Hydraulic conductivity is measured as the proportionality constant, K, between flow velocity, v, and hydraulic gradient, i and has units of [m/s]: δυντελεστής διαπερατότηταςcolloid a substance consisting of very small particles dispersed in a continuous medium. A colloidal particle is generally accepted as having a size between 5 and 5 000 Angstrom. κολλοειδέςσελ 5 / 32 colloidal grout a grout with an artificially induced cohesiveness, in which the solid particles or large molecules (colloids) are totally dispersed and remain in suspension, i.e. a grout mixture that does not segregate or bleed. κολλοειδές ένεμαcombined pile pile made up of two or more types or sizes of piles joined together. The connection between the components is designed to transmit load and to prevent separation during and after construction. (=composite pile) σύνθετος πάσαλος (αλληλοτεμνόμενοι πάσσαλοι)combined wall retaining wall composed of primary and secondary elements. The primary elements can be steel tubes, beams, or box piles. The secondary elements are normally U or Z-shaped steel sheet piles. σύνθετα τοιχώματα (τοίχοι)compaction grouting a displacement grouting method which aims at forcing a mortar of high internai friction into the soil to compact it without fracturing it injection solide Verdichtungsinjektion (Kompaktionsinjektion) τριμεντενέσεις συμπύκνωσηςcomparable experience documented, or other clearly established information related to the ground and installation conditions, involving similar types of soil and rock and for which similar behaviour is expected. Information gained locally is considered to be particularly relevant σχετική εμπειρίαcompensation grouting a term employed for controlled displacement grouting with the aim to counteract ground settlement induced by excavation works. This term refers to a number of grouting methods. τσιμεντένεση αντιστάθμισηςcompression pile pile to resist compressive forces. pieu en compression Druckpfahl θλιβόμενος πάσσαλοςconcreting pipe metal pipe comprising several joined lengths, surmounted by a hopper or chute for concrete placement. σωλήνωση σκυροδέτησηςconsistency the relative mobility or ability of freshly mixed mortar or grout to flow. The usual measurements are slump for stiff mixtures and flow for more fluid grouts. εργάσιμοσελ 6 / 32 consolidation grouting this term refers to several injection methods including impregnation, fissure grouting, bulk filling, hydraulic fracturing and compaction grouting, whereby the aim is to strengthen the soil or rock mass. τσιμεντένεση σταθεροποιήσεωςconstant rate of penetration test static loading test in which a test pile is forced into the ground at a constant rate and the force is measured (CRP-test). essai de chargement à vitesse d'enfoncement weggesteuerte Probebelastung πενετρομέτρηση σταθερής διείσδυσης (CRP)contact grouting the injection of grout into the interface between man-made structures and the ground injection de contact Kontaktinjektion τσιμεντένεση επαφήςcontinuous flight auger pile (CFA-pile) bored pile formed by means of a hollow stemmed continuous flight auger through the stem of which concrete or grout is pumped as the auger is extracted . pieu à la tarière continue creuse (CFA) Schneckenbohr-pfahl σκυροδέτηση πασσάλων με χρήση αρίδαςcontinuous mixing a process in which the ingredients of the mixture are fed without interruption and from which the mixed product is discharged in a continuous stream. συνεχής ανάμιξηcoring removal of soil by core sampler (e.g. to mitigate the effects of heave by pile driving) πυρηνοληψίαcoupler a device for joining lengths of bar or strand which comprise an anchor tendon coupleur Koppelelement σύνδεσμοςcover see overburden.creep limit the maximum creep displacement rate permitted at a specific load level vitesse limite de fluage Grenzkriechmaß όριο ερπυσμούσελ 7 / 32 critical creep load the anchor load corresponding to the end of the first linear part of a plot of anchor load against creep rate traction critique de fluage Kritische Kriechkraftcushion material, fitted into a recess in the driving cap, which smoothes the impact force of the falling hammer on the driving cap and on the head of the sheet pilecut-off level (trimming) prescribed level to which a pile is cut or trimmed back before connecting it to the superstructure.cutting ring bottom part of a casing, usually reinforced and with teeth to facilitate penetration into the ground.cutting-off (1) removal of contaminated or substandard concrete from the pile head. (2) Removal of surplus concrete above the designed cut-off level.datum load the level of anchor load from which the anchor head displacement is measured during a stress test. In general, a value of 10 % proof load is adopted traction de référence Vorbelastungde-clutching disconnection of the interlock during sheet pile drivingde-clutching detector instrument for determining whether or not the interlocks of adjacent sheet piles are fully engaged during drivingdegree of settling see sedimentation rate.design strength the strength required to fulfill the design requirements fur the grout or grouted ground. αντοχή σχεδιασμούdirect circulation boring continuous excavation method in which fluid is passed down the central pipe of the boring string for the purpose of displacing spoil upward in the pile bore.displacement grouting injection of grout into a host medium in such a manner as to deform, compress, or displace the ground injection avec déplacement des terrains Verdrängungsinjektiondisplacement pile pile which is installed in the ground without excavation or removal of material from the ground except for limiting heave, vibration, removal of obstructions or to assist penetrationσελ 8 / 32 Dn, dn the largest size of the smallest n% of soil grains and the largest size of the smallest n% of grout particles.double packer a device consisting of a pair of seals (packers) fitted to a grouting pipe at a predetermined distance apart, used to limit grout injection to the ground between the two packers, i.e. the packed-off length or stage.downstage (descending stage) grouting a grouting technique where a given distance (stage) is drilled and grouted before the borehole is advanced by further drilling or packers are employed ίο start grouting at the top of the borehole and advance the grouting process progressively down the hole. κατιούσα τσιμεντένεσηdrilling fluid/mud suspension composed of water and bentonite, polymers or clay, and with or without cement and other additions, for stabilization of bore hole wails and for flushing. γεωτρητικός πολτόςdrive tube steel tube used to displace the ground during the formation of a driven cast in place pile. Drive tube is withdrawn during concretingdriven cast-in-place pile pile installed by driving a closed ended permanent or temporary casing, and filling the hole so formed with plain or reinforced concrete.driven pile pile which is driven into the soil by hammering, vibration or static pressure, the soil being displaced . πάσσαλος με εκτόπιση εδαφικού υλικούdriving method to bring the piles into the ground to the required depth, such as hammering, vibrating, pressing, screwing or by a combination of these or other methodsdriving assistance method used to assist a pile to penetrate the ground e.g. jetting, preboring, preblasting, predrivingdriving cap device, placed on the top of the sheet pile which transmits the blow of the hammer evenly, thereby preventing damage of the sheet pile headdriving criteria driving parameters used to be fulfilled when driving a piledriving method method of driving such as panel driving, pitch and drive, staggered driving by means of impact, vibration pressing or by a combination of theseσελ 9 / 32 durability resistance to mechanical and chemical attack. Mechanical durability is usually measured by either slake durability tests or flow durability tests, during which ground water is flown through a bore in a specimen of cemented host material. Chemical durability tests are usually conducted on ground samples of the cemented host material which are kept in the ground water. αντοχή σε διάρκεια (ανθεκτικότητα)dynamic pile test loading test where a dynamic force is applied at the pile head for assessment of pile capacity. essai de chargement dynamique de pieu dynamischer Pfahlversucheffective pressure the actual grout pressure acting in the ground pression effective wirksamer Druckempty bore length of excavation from the working level to the casting level or the prescribed pile head.emulsifier a substance that modifies the surface tension of colloidal droplets, keeping them from coalescing, and keeping them suspended. γαλακτωματοποιητήςemulsion a system containing dispersed colloidal droplets γαλάκτωμαencapsulation a corrosion protection applied at least to the tendon bond length protection Korrosionsschutz-umhüllungend bearing pile pile transmitting forces to the ground mainly by compression on ist base. pieu travaillant en pointe Spitzendruck-pfahlenlarged base base of a pile formed to have an area greater than that of ist shaft. For bored piles, normally constructed by the use of special underreaming or belling-out tools. base élargie Fußaufweitungepoxy grout (resin) a multi-component resin grout that usually exhibits very high tensile, compressive and bond (adhesive) strengths. εποξειδικό ένεμαexcavation (1) digging, lifting and removing soil, rock or fill for the formation of a borehole, (2) the borehole constructed for a bored pile. εκσκαφή, εξόρυξη σελ 10 / 32 external anchor resistance the load resistance of an anchor at the interface between ground and fixed anchor length résistance externe du tirant Herausziehwiderstand des Ankersfalse set the rapid development of rigidity in a freshly mixed grout without the evolution of much heat. Such rigidity can be dispelled and plasticity can be regained by further mixing without the addition of wafer. Premature stiffening, hesitation set, early stiffening, and rubber set are other terms that refer to the same phenomenon.filler an inert material added ίο a grout to modify its properties or to replace a component. πληρωτικό υλικόfilm time see setting time.filter cake a concentrated solid or semi-solid material that is separated from a liquid and remains on the filter after pressure filtration.filter press an instrument used for measuring the filter-loss characteristics of a grout.filtration water quantity of water which comes out of a grout in a given time during a filtration test.final set a degree of stiffening of a grout mixture greater than the initial set, generally stated as an empirical value indicating the time in hours and minutes that is required for cement paste to stiffen sufficiently to resist the penetration of a weighted test needle.fish plate, splice plate steel plate which joins two lengths of sheet pile together μεταλλικός σύνδεσμος πασσαλοσανίδωνfissure grouting the injection of grout into fissures, joints, fractures and discontinuities, particularly in rock injection de fissure Kluftinjektion τσιμεντένεση ρηγματώσεωνfixed anchor length the designed length of an anchor over which the load is transmitted to the surrounding ground, through a grout body longueur de scellement du tirant Krafteintragungslängeflash set the rapid development of rigidity in a freshly mixed grout, usually with the evolution of considerable heat. This rigidity cannot be dispelled nor can the plasticity be regained by further mixing without addition of water also referred to as quick set or grab set.σελ 11 / 32 flow cone a device for measurement of grout consistency in which a predetermined volume of grout is permitted to escape through a precisely sized orifice, the time of efflux (flow factor) being used as the indication of consistency.flow rate the volume of fluid (grout) passing through a unit area per unit time. παροχήfluid concreting pipe pipe used for placing concrete beneath the supporting fluid, to avoid contamination and segregation tube plongeur Betonierrohrfluidifier an additive which improves the flow characteristics of a grout. ρευστοποιητήςfly ash a fine residual product derived from the combustion of ground or powdered coal. Similar to Pulverised fuel ash. ιπτάμενη τέφραfoam foams used in grouting are solid structures encapsulating air, usually in closed pores. They are obtained either by injecting a gas into a grout or by a reaction between the grout and the ground water which liberates a gas. αφρόςfollower a temporary extension, used during driving, that permits the driving of the pile top below ground surface, water surface, or below the lowest point to which the driving equipment can reach without disengagement from the leadersfracturing see hydraulic fracturing.free anchor length the distance between the proximal end of the fixed anchor length and the tendon anchorage at the anchor head longueur libre du tirant Freie Ankerlängefriction pile pile transmitting actions to the ground mainly by friction and adhesion between the lateral surface of the pile and the adjacent ground. pieu flottant Reibungspfahl πάσσαλος τριβήςσελ 12 / 32 gel the condition where a liquid grout begins to exhibit measurable shear strength. A colloidal material in which the dispersed substances form a continuous branching cohesive network. It may contain a proportion of liquid but possesses some properties of a solid. Some gels can be returned to the liquid phase by disturbance or mixing and will thereafter reform as a gel again (see Thixotropy). πολτόςgel strength the shear strength of a gel. This may be measured at a fixed time interval after mixing or breaking up of a gel or when the gel has fully developed. συνεκτικότητα πολτούgel time the measured time interval between the mixing of a grout and the formation of a gel. χρόνος πήξεως ενέματοςGIN method GIN stands for "Grouting Intensity Number". The method, applied in rock grouting, uses this number as a parameter for limiting grouting applications, notably in fissures, to a maximum given GIN value. This value is obtained by multiplying the injected grout volume (in litres) by the effective grouting pressure (in bar) per meter of borehole.grain size distribution the distribution by weight of the grain sizes of a medium, usually expressed as a cumulative percentage. κοκκομετρική διαβάθμισηgravity grouting grouting under no applied pressure other than the height of grout fluid. Sometimes referred to as trémie grouting injection gravitaire drucklose Verfüllung παροχέτευση ενέματος δια βαρύτητοςgrout (1) a setting material which transfers toad from the tendon to the ground over the fixed anchor length, and which may fill the rest of the borehole and/or contribute to corrosion protection. coulis Verpreßmörtel ένεμαgrout (2) a pumpable material (suspension, solution, emulsion or mortar), injected into soil or rock, which stiffens and sets with time. Fluid mixture of a setting agent (usually cement), fine aggregate and water that generally hardens after being placed in position. coulis Injektionsgut ένεμαgrout curtain a grouted mass whose vertical dimensions greatly exceed the width. κουρτίνα τσιμεντενέσεωνσελ 13 / 32 grout mix the constituents of a mixture normally expressed by weight or volume, or as a proportion of the quantity of water or other major constituents. ενέσιμο μείγμαgrout take the measured quantity of grout injected into a unit volume of ground, or a unit length of grout hole, or a complete hole. απορρόφηση ενέματοςgroutability the ability of a ground to accept grout απορροφητικότητα ενέματοςgroutability ratio the groutability ratio, GR, expresses the relationship between the particle size of the grout (suspension type grout) and the grain size of the soil to be grouted. The ratios, GR = D dgs or GR = D 10^90 are used, where: Dx = the size which x% of the soil particles are smaller than, dy = the size which y% of the grout particles are smaller than. λόγος απορροφητικότητας ενέματοςgrouted pile prefabricated pile fitted with an enlarged shoe to create along a part or the full perimeter of the pile a space which is filled during driving with grout, mortar or microconcrete.grouting injection of a fluid cementitious mixture (e.g. cement grout, mortar, micro concrete) τσιμεντένεσηgrouting (trial) test test injection prior to grouting operating to assess the groutability of a ground or the appropriateness of a given grout type. δοκιμαστική τσιμεντένεσηgrouting Intensity Number (GIN) the product of pressure and injected grout volume. See GIN Method.grouting pressure a pressure applied during the grouting process and measured at defined locations (usually at the pump or the borehole collar) pression d'injection Injektionsdruck πίεση εφαρμογής ενέματοςguide frame frame consisting of one or more stiff guide beams, normally of steel or wood, to position and maintain the alignment of sheet piles during pitching and driving καθοδηγητικό πλαίσιοσελ 14 / 32 guide-walls small, parallel temporary wails which are used to provide a guide for the excavating tool and to secure the sides of the trench against collapse in the vicinity of the fluctuating level of the supporting murettes-guides Leitwände καθοδηγητικοί τοίχοιhammer part of piling equipment for driving sheet piles by percussion impact σφύρα πασσαλοσανίδωνhammer cushion device or material placed between the impact hammer and the helmet to protect the hammer and the pile head from destructive direct impact. The hammer cushion material shall have enough stiffness to transmit hammer energy efficiently into the pile.hammer grab excavation tool with two or more jaws or shovels, to remove soil or debris from an excavation by an intermittent operation. αρπάγηhardener in a two component chemical grout, the component that causes the base component to cure. σκληρυντήςhardening increase in strength of a grout after setting. σκλήρυνσηhardening time the time for a grout to reach its design strength. χρόνος σκλήρυνσηςheave upward movement of ground or pilehelmet device, usually steel, placed between the base of the impact hammer and the pile or drive tube so as to uniformly distribute the hammer impact to the top of the pile.hydration the formation of a compound by incorporation of molecular water into a complex molecule with molecules or units of other species. ενυδάτωσηhydraulic binder finely ground inorganic material which when mixed with water forms a paste which sets and hardens by means of hydration and which retains, after hardening, its strength and stability even under water. υδραυλικό συνδετικόσελ 15 / 32 hydraulic fracturing (hydraulic fracture claquage grouting) the fracturing of a ground initiated by the injection of water or grout under a pressure in excess of the local tensile fracturation hydraulique (injection de claquage) Hydraulische Rissbiidung (Claquage)hydrofracture see hydraulic fracture. Term not recommended.hydrostatic head the fluid pressure expressed as an equivalent height of water above a given level. υδροστατική πίεσηimpact hammer tool of construction equipment for driving piles by impact (striking or falling mass) κρουστική σφύραinitial pile first working pile on construction site πάσσαλος αρχήςInitial set a degree of stiffening of a grout mixture generally stated as an empirical value indicating the time in hours and minutes that is required for cement paste to stiffen sufficiently to resist the penetration of a weighted test needle. αρχική κάθισηInjection valve openings along the injection string of a sleeve pipe, usually covered by a flexible sleeve, the whole of which acts as valves. βαλβίδα εισπίεσηςintegrity test test carried out on an installed pile for the verification of soundness of materials and of the pile geometry. essai d'intégrité Integritätsprüfung δοκιμή συνεχείαςinvestigation test a load test to establish the ultimate load resistance of an anchor at the grout/ground interface and to determine the characteristics of the anchor in the working load range essai préalable Untersuchungsprüfung ερευνητική δοκιμήjacked pile pile pressed into soil by means of static force εμπυγμυόμενος πάσσαλοςσελ 16 / 32 jet grouting a process consisting of the disaggregation of the soil (or weak rock) and its mixing with, and partial replacement by, a cementing agent. The disaggregation is achieved by a high energy jet of a fluid which can be the cementing agent itself. τσιμεντένεση υπέρ-υψηλής πιέσεωςjetting use of pressurised water ίο facilitate the driving of a pile by means of hydraulic displacement of parts of the soilkasumeter instrument for measuring the yield point.Kelly bar sliding shaft on a boring rig that transmits the torque necessary for the boring operation from a powered rotary table to the boring tool. ράβδος Kellylayer hardening time see setting time.leader beam or similar, attached to the driving rig to lead the sheet pile and the hammer {or the vibrator) during drivingleader slide guiding device connecting the drive cap and/or the hammer to the leaderleading system whole system to guide the sheet pile and the hammer (or the vibrator) during drivingLefranc test in situ falling head permeability test, where the development of a water level in a standpipe is observed to calculate the permeability. δοκιμή Lefrankliner, lining tube, generally of thin steel plate, forming part of the pile shaft (e.g. used for the protection of pile shafts in soft grounds or to reduce negative skin friction). επένδυσηload loss limit the permitted cumulative loss of load at the end of a specified time period pert de tension admissible Grenzkraftabfall όριο απωλείας φορτίουlock-off load the load transferred to an anchor head immediately on completion of a stressing operation traction de blocage Festiegekraftσελ 17 / 32 Lugeon value a relative unit of transmissivity representing the absorption of a water flow of one litre per minute, per meter of a 76 mm diameter borehole, at a pressure of 1 MPa in rock. τιμή Lugeonmaintained load pile test static loading test in which a test pile has loads applied in incremental stages, each of which is held constant for a certain period or until pile motion has virtually ceased or has reached a prescribed limit {ML -test). essai de chargement par palier lastgesteuerte Probe Belastungmandrel a steel core for driving that is inserted into a closed-end tubular pile. After installation the mandrel is withdrawnMarsh funnel see flow cone. κώνος ΜarshMarsh viscosity viscosity tests are carried out with the Marsh cone. The duration of flow, of a given volume of liquid, expressed in seconds, is called the 'Marsh viscosity'. See also Flow cone. ιξώδες κατά Marshmicro-fine or ultrafine product very fine product having a uniform, steep particle size distribution curve, where d95<20 μm.mini (or micro) pile bored pile with diameter D<0,3 m. Usually constructed by special methods . μικροπάσσαλοςmoisture content the ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the weight of water in a given grouting material to the weight of dry solid particles. Also called Water content. εμοεριεχόμενη υγρασίαmonitoring the passive role of checking the technical quality of the piling processmortar a highly particulate grout containing sand. κονίαμαmud cake see filtercake.mudding-in technique of stirring bentonite or clay powder and water by an auger into granular soil to facilitate the installation of a temporary casing.negative skin friction frictional and/or adhesive force by which surrounding soil or fill transfers downward load to a pile when the soil or fill settles relative to the pile shaft. σελ 18 / 32 neutralisation rate for sodium silicate gels, the proportion of sodium neutralised by the reactantNewtonian fluid a true fluid that exhibits constant viscosity at all rates of shear. A Newtonian fluid has no yield point. Νευτώνιο ρευστόnon-displacement grouting substitution of the natural interstitial fluid in the accessible existing voids of the ground by a grout or mortar without any significant displacement of the ground. The term includes penetration grouting and bulk filling injection sans déplacement des terrains Verdrängungsfreie Injektion (Injektion ohneobstruction natural (or man made) hard strata, blocks or similar ground requiring special tools or methods for the excavation. εμπόδιοoverburden the thickness of rock and soil material overlying the stage of the hole being grouted. φορτίο υπερκειμένωνpacker a device inserted into a drill hole or sleeve pipe to isolate one part of the hole from another. A packer is usually an expandable device activated mechanically, hydraulically or pneumatically. διάταξη βυσμάτωσης (πάκερ)panel section of a diaphragm wall which is concreted as a single unit. A diaphragm panel may be linear, T-shaped, i_- shaped, or of other configuration panneau Schlitzwandelement πέτασμαparticle size distribution the distribution by weight of particles of grouting material among various sizes, usually expressed in terms of cumulative percentage larger or smaller than each of a series of diameters (sieve openings) or the percentages between certain ranges of diameters (sieve openings). κοκκομετρίαparticulate grout a grout containing particles, larger than colloids, suspended in the liquid.pass injection of a given length of hole without interruption.penetrability the ability of a grout to penetrate a ground. διεισδυτικότητασελ 19 / 32 penetration grouting grout injection of joints or fractures in rock, or pore spaces in soil, without displacing the ground. The term includes permeation (impregnation), fissure and contact grouting injection de pénétration Eindringinjektionpermanent anchor an anchor with a design life which is in excess of two years tirant d'ancrage permanent Daueranker μόνιμη αγκύρωσηpermanent casing permanent continuous surround to a cast-in place pile designed to support bore walls and/or to act as a protective or load bearing unit.permeability a measure of the ease with which a fluid passes through a porous medium. See also Coefficient of permeability. διαπερατότηταpermeation (impregnation) grouting the replacement of interstitial water or gas of a porous medium with a grout at injection pressures low enough to prevent displacement injection d'imprégnation Poreninjektion (Imprägntion durch Porenverfüllung)phase grouting activity, with defined criteria which is a part of a sequence.pile slender structural member in the ground for the transfer of actions. pieu Pfahl πάσσαλοςpile base bottom area of pile. βάση πασσάλουpile base grouting Injection of grout under pressure below the base of an installed pile base in order to enhance performance under load. Grouting pipes or a preformed void at the pile base are installed for this purpose.pile bottom lower part of a pile.pile cushion material, usually softwood, placed between the helmet and the top of a precast concrete pile.pile head upper part of a pile. κεφαλή πασσάλου σελ 20 / 32 pile joint means of joining lengths of pile elements either by welding or by mechanical jointspile shaft the body of the piie between the head and the base.pile shaft grouting Injection of grout carried out after pile concrete has set for the enhancement of skin friction by the use of grouting pipes which are installed together with the pile reinforcement.pile shoe shoe or point fitted ίο the base of a pile or drive tube to form the toepile top upper area of pile.plain bored pile bored pile constructed in soils which are sufficiently stable not to require support to bore hole walls.plan deviation of pile horizontal distance between the as built and the design pile axis at the working level. (Pile eccentricity refers to the deviation at the cut-off level).plastic concrete a low strength, high plasticity concrete. Here, high plasticity means the ability to sustain larger strains than normal concrete. It is usually made with a low cement content, containing bentonite and/or other clay materials. It may also include other materials such as PFA and admixtures béton plastique Tonbeton πλαστικό σκυρόδεμαplastic concrete wall wall made of plastic concrete, which is constructed in a trench in the ground. The concrete is placed beneath the supporting fluid using concreting pipes in liquid-supported trenches, or in some cases, in dry conditions paroi moulée en béton plastique Tonbetonschlitzwandporosity the ratio, usually expressed as a percentage, οι the volume of voids of a given soil or rock mass, to the total volume of the soil or rock mass. πορώδεςpost grouted pile pile where shaft and/or base grouting is performed after installation through pipes fixed along or incorporated in the pile.pot life see setting time. χρόνος εργασίμουσελ 21 / 32 potyurethanes chemical resins reacting to produce loams. Their viscosity is largely similar to that of epoxy resins and they harden very quickly (0,5 min to 10 h). One component polyurethanes harden upon reaction with water. Two-component polyurethanes usually foam up in contact with water, the foaming process causes a kind of self-injection which ensures a better adhesive strength and a certain deformability. πολυουρεθάνεςpozzolane a siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material, which in itself possesses little or no cemenitious value but will, in finely divided form and in the presence of moisture, chemically react with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperatures to form compounds possessing cementitious properties. ποζολάνηpreboring preliminary excavation process mainly for the penetration of top layers or the removal of obstructions. προδιάτρησηpreboring (preaugering, predrilling) boring through obstructions or materials too dense to penetrate with the planned pile type and driving equipmentprecast concrete diaphragm wall wall made of precast elements which are lowered into a trench containing a self-hardening slurry paroi préfabriquée en béton Fertigteilschlitzwandprecast pile totally preformed pile of reinforced or prestressed concrete cast in one length or a series of joined lengths and usually installed by driving . πρόχυτος πάσσαλοςprecast screw pile screw pile formed by screwing into the ground a cylindrical preformed pile of reinforced or prestressed concrete, comprising at its base a limited number of concrete flanges.prefabricated (displacement) pile pile or pile element which is manufactured in a single unit or in pile segments before installationpreliminary pile pPile installed before the commencement of the main piling works or section of the works for the purpose of establishing the suitability of the chosen type of pile and/or for confirming the design, dimensions and bearing capacity. Pile installed to assess the practicability and suitability of the construction method for a particular application. pieu préliminaire Probepfahl (1)prepacked pile pile where the completed excavation is filled with coarse aggregate which is subsequently injected with cement mortar from the bottom up. pieu ba!lasté injecté Prepacked-Pfahl σελ 22 / 32 proof load the maximum test load to which an anchor is subjected traction d'épreuve Prüfkraft φορτίο δοκιμήςpulverised fuel ash (PFA) by-product of burning of coal for electric power generation with high content of mineral matter. κονιορτοποιημένη τάφρα καυσίμων (PFA)raking pile pile installed at an inclination related to the horizontal. κεκλιμένος πάσσαλοςrecording tο make a permanent record of the facts relating to the piling operations and aspects monitoredredrive (1) an additional series of hammer blows used to drive the prefabricated pile to re-establish the required driving resistanceredrive (2) method used to form an enlarged shaft on a temporarily cased driven cast in place pilereinforced slurry wall wall made from a self-hardening slurry reinforced by steel beams, steel mesh or other suitable means paroi moulée en cois lis armé Bewehrte Einphasenschiitzwandreinforcement cage reinforcement for piles comprising longitudinal steel bars arranged to form the generatrices of a cylinder or a rectangular prism around which links, hoops or helices are wound and fixed. κλωβός οπλισμούresin a material that constitutes the base of an organic grout system, such as acryl, epoxy, polyester and urethane. ρητίνηrestrike a single hammer blow to a prefabricated pile thai is monitored for energy input and measurement of pile strain/acceleration and/or pile set are made, to allow assessment of pile bearing resistancereverse circulation boring continuous excavation method in which fluid contained in the bore is pumped up a central pipe to transport spoil (e.g. by air lifting).rheologicai properties the properties governing the flow of a fluid or plastic solid. ρεολογικές ιδιότητεςσελ 23 / 32 rheopectic the viscosity (structuring) of rheopectic fluids increases with increasing shear rate (loading) and returns to its initial value after a certain time of rest.rock dowel rod protruding from the toe of the sheet pile, used for fixing sheet piles to the bed-rockrotary viscometer in rotary viscometers the viscosity and yield point are determined on the basis of the relationship between torque and rotation speed, respectively shear stress and shear gradient. The viscosity is derived from the ratio of shear stress to shear rate. περιστροφικό πυκνόμετροscrew anchor rod with a screw blade at the end, which is rotated into the natural ground behind the sheet piles to provide an anchoragescrew pile displacement pile in which the pile or the pile tube comprises a limited number of helices at its base and is installed under the combined action of a torque and a vertical thrust. By the screwing-in and/or by the screwing-out, the ground is essentially laterally displaced and virtually no soil is excavated.second choice prefabricated section originally manufactured for other purposes but accepted as suitable for use as a pile e.g. steel pipe for oilsedimentation the accumulation of grout particles at the bottom of a container when left unagitated as a result of gravitational forces.segregation the non-uniform distribution of particles within a grout or mortar due to sedimentation.self-hardening slurry suspension slurry which hardens with time. The slurry is a suspension which contains cement or another binder, and additional materials such as clay (bentonite), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) or pulverized fuel ash (PFA), fillers, and admixtures coulis autodurcissant Selbsterhärtendesequence the order in which different grout types are injected in different holes over time, or programmed succession of grouting phases.set the condition reached by a grout when it has lost plasticity to an arbitrary degree, usually measured in terms of resistance to penetration or déformation. Initial set refers to first stiffening and final set refers to an attainment of significant rigidity.set time (setting time) the time between mixing and the achievement in a significant change in the rheological properties. The setting time is volume and temperature dependent and is measured in a number of ways.σελ 24 / 32 shackle device for lifting sheet piles from the ground and placing them in the vertical positionshaft diameter diameter of the part of the pile between the pile head and the pile base: a) for bored piles constructed with casings: equal to external diameter of the casing, b) for bored piles constructed without a casing: equal to the maximum diameter of the boring tool. diamètre du fût Pfahldurchmessershear the apparent viscosity, μ measured in [Pa.s] represents the ratio of shear stress, τ, and shear rate, γ. For most solutions, the viscosity is a function of the shear stress and depends on the agitation of the substance. If subjected to rapid agitation, the viscosity of a substance reduces and tends towards a minimum value called plastic viscosity. For some substances, notably Newtonian liquids, the viscosity is independent of the shear stress and the ratio, —, becomes a constant, the absolute (dynamic) viscosity, η. Hence, for Newtonian fluids such as the true solutions used during grouting, the concept of plastic viscosity does not apply. The kinematic viscosity, v, measured in m2/s is a function of the density of the material ν = μ/ρ.shear strength the stress at which a material can no longer resist the applied shear force. διατμητική αντοχήshear stress τ is the shear force applied per unit area. διατμητική τάσηshearometer an instrument for measuring the shear strength of fluids or weak gels.sheet pile individual element of a sheet pile wall (single, double or multiple sheet pile) πασσαλοσανίδαsheet pile wall screen of sheet piles which forms a continuous wall. For steel sheet piles continuity is provided by interlocking of the joints, fitting of longitudinal grooves or by means of special connectors and for timber sheet piles, by tongue and groovesheet pile wall structure structure, consisting of sheet piles, soil and rock, anchorages, bracings and walings, which retains ground and water.shrinkage a reduction in volume of grout.single packer a single packer comprising one seal See Packer and Double packer.site inspection inspection of the construction site and its surroundingsσελ 25 / 32 site investigation geotechnical investigations on and near the construction siteskin friction frictional and/or adhesive resistance on the pile surface.sleeve grout a grout which fills the annulus between the sleeve pipe and the borehole wall.sleeve pipe (tube) a grout pipe perforated at regular intervals. The perforations are covered externally by sleeves acting as non-return valves.sleeve pipe (ΤΑΜ) grouting grouting method using sleeve pipes, which allow repetitive placement of grout.slippage relative longitudinal displacement between the interlocks of adjacent sheet pilesslump test test for assessing the consistency of a mortar by use of an Abram's cone. The cone is filled with mortar to a given height, the cone lifted and the distance of initial height of the cone to final height of the mortar mound measured. δοκιμή κάθισηςslurry wall wall made from a self-hardening slurry. In most cases, the excavation is carried out using a selfhardening slurry as the supporting fluid. Sealing elements such as membranes or sheet piles may be inserted paroi moulée en coulis Einphasenschlitzwand διαφραγματικός τοίχοςsocket bottom part of a pile in hard ground (usually rock), αιχμή πασσάλουsolution a liquid formed by completely dissolving a chemical in water to give a uniform fluid without solid particles. Solutions are Newtonian liquids with neither rigidity nor particles and harden in a predetermined period of time, called the 'setting time’. They can be true or colloidal solutions. In the case of colloidal solutions, large molecules are contained in the liquid. διάλυμαsonic coring sonic integrity test of pile concrete carried out from core drillings in a pile shaft or from a preplaced tube system. essai d'auscultation sonique par transparence Ultraschall versuch im Pfahl υπερηχητικός έλεγχος πασσάλουσελ 26 / 32 sonic test, low strain integrity test Integrity test of a pile where a series of sonic waves is passed between a transmitter and a receiver through the concrete of a pile and where the characteristics of the received waves are measured and used to infer continuity and section variations of the pile shaft. essai d'auscultation sonique par réflexion Ultraschallversuch υπερηχητικός έλεγχος συνεχείας πασσάλουspacer, spacer pad appliance of plastic or steel material or concrete (pad) fixed to the steel reinforcement to hold the reinforcement cage laterally and maintain the concrete cover to reinforcement. αποστατήραςsplit spacing the procedure by which additional grout injection holes are located at half the distance from previously grouted holes. πύκνωση τσιμεντενέσεωνstabilizing fluid Water mixed with clay, bentonite or other material for the support of the excavation walls and the base in unstable ground. ρευστό σταθεροποίησηςstable suspension stable suspensions exhibit in 2 hours less than 5 per cent bleeding of clear water at the top of a 1 000 mm cylinder with an internal diameter of 60 mm at a temperature of 20° C suspension stable stabile Suspension σταθερό αιώρημαstage a given injection length. βαθμίδαstage grouting sequential grouting of a hole in separate stages as opposed to grouting the entire length at once. εφαρμογή ενέματος κατά βαθμίδεςstarter bars steel bars inserted into the fresh concrete at the pile head so that they partially project to provide connection with the superstructure. αναμονέςstatic pile test loading test where a pile is subjected to chosen axial and/or lateral forces at the pile head for the analysis of its capacity. essai de chargement statique de pieu statische Probebelastung στατική δοκιμή πασσάλουstray current direct current that is induced in the soil which can cause corrosion of a pile ρεύμα διασποράς σελ 27 / 32 strength and confining pressure also called hydrofracturing, hydrosplitting, hydrojacking or claquagestrut long compression member, usually of steel, wood or reinforced concrete, for the support of the sheet pile walls and normally connected to the walings αντηρίδαsuitability test a load test to confirm that a particular anchor design will be adequate in particular ground conditions essai de contrôle Eignungsprüfung δοκιμή καταλληλότητοςsuperplasticizer (plasticizer) additive, which increases the workability of mortars and reduces the viscosity of suspensions. υπερρευστοποιητήςsupervision the active role of overseeing or directing the piling operations επίβλεψηsupporting fluid fluid used during excavation to support the sides of the trench, it is usually a bentonite suspension, a polymer solution or a self-hardening slurry fluide d'excavation Stützende Flüssigkeit ρευστό στήριξηςsuspending agent an additive that decreases the settlement rate of particles in liquid. πρόσθετο εναιώρησηςsuspension a mixture of liquid and solid materials. Behaves as a Bingham fluid during flow, possessing both viscosity and cohesion (yield strength). Particulate suspensions contain particles larger than clay size, while colloidal suspensions contain particles of clay size. αιώρημαsuspension rods steel appliances to prevent a reinforcement cage for the upper part of a pile from dropping to the bottom of the hole (hangers). ράβδοι ανάρτησηςsyneresis the expulsion of liquid (generally alkaline water) from a set gel which is not stressed, accompanied by a contraction of the gel. Syneresis occurs over a period of a few months. συναίρεσησελ 28 / 32 system test a test which is carried out on an anchor system to verify its competence to perform as required essai de système Systemprüfung δοκιμή συστήματοςtake see grout take. απορρόφηση ενέματοςtemplate specific type of guide frame, used for positioning curved or angled sheet pile walls. They often incorporate a working platform or access staging for piling operatives οδηγός περιγράμματοςtemporary anchor an anchor with a design life of less than two years tirant d'ancrage provisoire Kurzzeitanker προσωρινή αγκύρωσηtendon the part of a ground anchor that is capable of transmitting the tensile load from the fixed anchor length to the anchor head armature Zugglied τένονταςtendon bond length the length of the tendon that is bonded directly to the grout and capable of transmitting the applied tensile load longueur de scellement de l'armature Verankerungslänge des Zuggliedes πακτωμένο μήκος τένονταtendon free length the length of tendon between the anchor head and the proximal end of the tendon bond length longueur libre de l'armature Freie Stahllänge ελεύθερο μήκος τένοντα αγκύρωσηςtension pile pile designed to resist tensile forces. pieu en traction Zugpfahl εφελκυόμενος πάσσαλοςtest pile pile to which loads are applied to determine the resistance deformation characteristics of the pile and the surrounding ground. pieu d'essai Probepfahl (3) δοκιμαστικός πάσσαλος σελ 29 / 32 thixotropy the property of a material that enables it to stiffen in a relatively short time on standing, but upon agitation or manipulation to change ίο a very soft consistency or to a fluid of high viscosity, the process being completely reversible, i.e. the viscosity of thixotropic fluids decreases with increasing shear rate (loading) and returns to its initial value after a time of regeneration. Fluids that show an increase in apparent viscosity with time are called thixotropic. Thixotropy is common in non-Newtonian grouts. θιξοτροπίαthreader device fixed to the toe of a sheet pile in order to guide the sheet pile into the interlock of a sheet pile already placed in the guide frame οδηγός ποδός πασσαλοσανίδαςtoe level lowest level of pile. στάθμη ρύγχους πασσάλουTPA method TPA stands for "Transient Pressure Analysis". The method, used in rock grouting, is based on the information obtained from observation of the pressure development after shut-in of the grout after a pass. This is done by stopping the pump deliberately and observing and plotting the ensuing pressure drop against time. Ανάλυση διακυμάνσεων πίεσηςtransmissivity the transmissivity Τ [m2/s] is the rate of flow of water through a vertical strip of ground which is 1 meter wide and extends the full saturated thickness of the ground when the hydraulic gradient i = 1. It can be expressed as the product of the hydraulic conductivity Κ [m/s] and the thickness of the aquifer. A customary unit of transmissivity of the rock mass is the Lugeon. The transmissivity of the rock mass in Lugeon units is defined as the seepage flow in litres/minute per meter length of borehole under a pressure of 1 MPa. παροχετευτικότηταtrémie grouting see gravity grouting. προώθηση ενέματοςtrémie pipe concreting pipe, with watertight joints for submerged concrete placement. During placement the lower end of the pipe remains immersed into the concrete. βυθιζόμενος σωλήνας σκυροδέτησης (Τρέμυ)trial pile pile installed to assess the practicability and suitability of the construction method for a particular application. pieu de faisabilité Probepfahl (2) δοκιμαστικός πάσσαλοςtrue solution one in which the components are 100 % dissolved in the base solvent. πλήρης διαλυτότητασελ 30 / 32 tube-à-manchette see sleeve pipe. διαφραγματικός σωλήναςunconfined compressive strength the load per unit area at which an unconfined prismatic or cylindrical specimen (height = 2 x width) of material will fail in a simple compression test without lateral support. ανεμπόδιστη θλιπτική αντοχήupstage grouting a grouting procedure, usually in rock grouting, where the grout hole is drilled to its full depth and thereafter grouting takes place in stages from the base of the hole upwards. ανιούσες τσιμεντενέσειςvibrator (vibrating hammer) tool of construction equipment for driving or extracting piles, drive tubes or casing by the application of vibratory forces δονητής (δονητική σφύρα)viscosity the internal fluid resistance of a substance which makes it resist a tendency to flow. A distinction is made between kinematic viscosity, v, and dynamic viscosity, η, for which: ν = η/ρ, where : ρ = density. Apparent viscosity is equivalent to dynamic viscosity, but considers point events. ιξώδεςvoid filling see bulk filling. Term not recommended. πλήρωση κενώνW/C ratio the water-cement ratio is the ratio by weight of water to the dry cement content of a grout. υδατοτσιμεντοσυντελεστήςwaling horizontal beam, usually of steel or reinforced concrete, fixed to the sheet pile wall and connected to the anchorage or struts, in order to distribute the applied anchor- or strut forces equally over the sheet pile wall. αντηρίδαwater content see moisture content υδατοπεριεκτικότηταwater retention capacity the ability of a suspension to retain water if not subjected to pressure. ικανότητα παρακράτησης ύδατοςwatertable the phreatic surface at which the pore water pressure equals atmospheric pressure, i.e. the standing water level which establishes in a hole dug in the ground. στάθμη υδροφόρου ορίζοντασελ 31 / 32 wings shaft enlargements to steel piles formed by welding steel sections to the pile, πτερύγιαworking level level of the piling platform on which the piling rig works. δάπεδο εργασίαςworking pile pile for the foundation of a structure. pieu de fondation Bauwerkspfahl ενεργός πάσσαλοςyield point (yield stress) the lowest shear stress value at which there is a sudden drop in the value of the applied stress and from where continuing extension occurs at more or less the same stress value. The yield point, yield stress or cohesion το is the shear stress at which plastic deformation occurs and a Bingham fluid begins to flow. The yield stress, τ0, of a Newtonian fluid is zero. όριο διαρροήςyield strength the stress at which a material exhibits a specific deviation from proportionality of stress and strain. αντοχή στο όριο διαρροήςσελ 32 / 32
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